the brighter and is called the prtmary bow; the upper is often very faint, and is called the secondary bow. In the primary bow the colors begin with red at the top and end with violet at the bottom ; in the secondary bow the order is just reversed.

The explanation of the rainbow was first given by Antonio de Dominis, archbishop of Spalatro, about 1600 A. D., who showed that a glass sphere filled with water would reflect a parallel incident beam of light in such a way as to produce a complete rainbow on a screen surrounding the source of light; but this explanation was, of course, incomplete until Newton proved that color is not produced at the refracting surface but is due to the decomposition of white light. This experiment of Dominis can be repeated by going into the Cave of the Winds at Niagara Falls where, on a bright day, the parallel incident beam and the complete rainbow of 3600 are easily obtained, the particles of spray replacing the glass-bulb filled with water. The primary bow is produced by rays which have undergone one internal reflection; the secondary by rays which have suffered two internal reflections. The angular width of the primary bow is twice 42° 2' for the red rays; and twice 400 17' for the violet rays. The corresponding angle for the red rays of the secondary bow is 50° 57'; and for the violet rays 540 07'. For the details of the reflections and refractions here occurring see any good textbook of physics, as Watson's.

Rain=Qauge, an instrument employed by meteorologists to measure the depths of water deposited by rain during any assigned period. In its ordinary form it consists of a funnel, with a mouth of known area, for collecting the rain-water in a graduated glass vessel where its mass can be easily determined. Knowing the mass of water precipitated and the area over which it was distributed, the depth may be easily calculated. Several forms of self-rėgistering rain-gauges have been devised, for which see any good treatise on meteorology.

Rainier (ra'ner), Mount. This mountain is in the southwest of the state of Washington, in the Cascade Range. It is higher by 10,000 feet than the surrounding mountains, from which it rises in an almost perfect cone to the height of 14,526 feet above sea-level. Its crater still gives out sulphurous fumes, but the deep gullies that the waters have worn in its sides and the mighty forests that surround its base show that the last eruption was in some far distant time. No less than 14 glaciers move slowly down its sides; and the ascent is very difficult. The mountain is also called Mount Tacoma. In height it is second only to Mount Whitney among the mountains of the United States, south of Alaska.

Rain'y Lake, a lake forming part of the boundary line between the Canadian Domin-

ion (province of Ontario) and the United States. It lies 100 miles west of Lake Superior, and is about 55 miles in length. It discharges its waters through Rainy River into Lake of the Woods.

Rainy River, a town on the river of the same name and the main line of the Canadian Northern Railway. It is the first divisional point on that line east of Winnipeg, and is important as the center of the sawn-lumber industry. The timber on the American and Canadian sides of the river is floated to this point to the mills. The Rainy River Lumber Company employs 450 hands. The Rat Portage Lumber Company employs 200 hands. The town has steamboat connection with Kenora and Fort Frances. Population 2,500.

Rai'sins, dried grapes of various kinds and well-known in the market. The raisin industry has long been developed in the Old World, but has recently become an important industry in California.

Rajah (ra'ja) is a Sanskrit word meaning king. Originally it was a title given to princes of the Hindu race who governed a territory, whether independent or not. Now the title is given to all Hindus of rank; even landowners of inferior caste not infrequently are given or assume the title. Native princes now as a rule assume the title of maharajah, meaning great king.

Raleigh (ra'li), N. C, capital of North Carolina and named after Sir Walter Raleigh, is situated on Neuse River, a little less than 200 miles from Richmond. It is built on an elevated site, with a central Union Square, from which four principal streets radiate, each 100 feet wide. In the square stands the capitol, a large granite building, costing over $500,000. The city also contains other state institutions and various manufactories. These consist of flour, cotton and cottonseed-oil mills, car and machine shops, phosphate, agricultural implements and carriage works and foundries. Raleigh has splendid public schools, both for colored and for white pupils, the state College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, the state institutions for the blind (white and colored), and the state Deaf and Dumb School. Near the city is the state university. Raleigh has the service of four railroads. Population 19,218.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, was born at Hayes, Devonshire, England, in 1552. He entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1566 but left in 1569, without taking a degree, to serve in the Huguenot cause in France. In 1580 he distinguished himself in the suppression of the Irish rebellion in Cork, and two or three years afterward was introduced to court and became a favorite of Queen Elizabeth. Raleigh's tall and handsome figure, his dark hair, lofty forehead, resolute bearing, alert expression and spirited wit combined to form an imposing personality, and all the advantages that nature had given him were height-