on all her colonies weakened. He returned to England to succeed Lord Wolseley as commander-in-chief of the army. In 1908 he was still living, on his estate in County Waterford, Ireland, with his wife and two daughters. His life may be traced in his military autobiography : Forty-One Years tn India and in Winston Churchill's Story of the Boer War.

Rob'ertson, Frederick William, a celebrated minister of the Church of England, was born at London, Feb. 3, 1816. He matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1837, and while there ardently devoted himself to the study of the Scriptures and standard literary works. In 1847 Robertson was called to Trinity Chapel, Brighton, where in a ministry of six years he arrested the public attention by originality, beauty and freshness of thought, wide human sympathy, knowledge of the human heart and interest in everything pertaining to human welfare. He showed his friendship for the working-classes by establishing the Work-ingmen's Institute at Brighton and preaching to its members the duty of culture and self-control. During Robertson's last years he suffered from a disease of the brain, which was aggravated by the misrepresentations to which he was subject on account of his liberal theological views and his sympathy for the laboring-classes. He died at Brighton, Aug. 15, 1853. See the Life and Letters and Sermons.

Robespierre (rō'bes-pēr' ), Maximilien Marie Isidore, was born at Arras, France, May 6, 1758. After pursuing a course of study at the college of his native town, he was sent to complete his education at the College of Louis le Grand at Paris. On the convocation of the states-general in 1789, he was elected one of :he deputies and went to Versailles; and here observers noted a peculiar force and earnestness that gave promise cf a distinguished career. "This man," said Mirabeau, "will go far, for he believes every word he says." After the death of Mirabeau Robespierre's importance seemed to increase, and from this time forward his biography is a history of the French Revolution. Robespierre was one of the deputies to the national convention, which was formed in 1792, and as chief of the extreme party, called The Mountain, he was one of the main agents in procuring the execution of the king, which took place in December of that year. In the following year occurred his final struggle with the Girondists, many of whom he sent to the scaffold during the Reign of Terror that lasted for many months. Marie Antoinette and the Duke of Orleans were the first victims', Danton, Camille and others followed; and under the so-called committee of public safety Paris became the scene of an indiscriminate slaughter, in which thousands of lives were sacrificed.

"Robespierre will follow me; I drag down Robespierre" said Danton on the scaffold. The end of the tyrant — such was the name given to him — drew rapidly near. A conspiracy was organized against him, and after a fierce tumult in the convention he was arrested. Next day (July 28, 1794), in company with Couthon, Saint-Just and 19 others, he closed his career on the scaffold. See the histories of the Revolution by Lamartine and by Taine.

Rob'in, the commonest of the American thrushes, ranging in summer from Mexico

to Labrador and Alaska. In winter it is found from Virginia south. It is among the first migra-tory birds to arrive north of its winter limit. This bird is a near relative of the Englishblack-bird. It is about ten inches long, with head and tail blackish and the rest of the upper parts olive-gray. The color of the under parts is chestnut-brown, except the throat, which is white with black streaks. The breast of the young robin is spotted. Its habits are too well-known to require description. The robin of England and Europe is an entirely different bird, belonging to the family of warblers. See Redbreast.

Rob Roy, the popular name for Robert McGregor, a celebrated Scottish outlaw, whose singular adventures entitle him to be considered the Robin Hood of Scotland. Rob Roy borrowed money from the Duke of Montrose to engage in cattle speculation; but, as he met with heavy losses, his estates were seized by the duke on account of the debt. Being rendered desperate by his misfortunes, he collected a band of about 20 followers and made open war on the duke, robbing him of his cattle and preventing him from receiving the rents of his tenants. Many stories are still current in the neighborhood of Lochs Lomond and Katrine of his narrow escapes from capture by the troops that were sent after him. Many instances have also been recorded of his kindness and liberality to the poor, whose wants he often supplied at the expense of the rich. He died in his own house on Dec. 28, 1738, his funeral being attended by all the people of the district, except the partisans of the Duke of Montrose. Rob Roy's exploits have been immortalized in Scott's novel which bears his name.

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