ROMULUS                                                        163X                                                     ROOSEVELT

with Italian life in the period of the famous Savonarola. ' It was a period of political as well as religious crisis, for the French were intriguing against the power of the Medici. Savonarola threw his whole weight on the side of Christian simplicity in the reaction against the artistic paganism which the Medici had encouraged. The most notable character in the book is Tito Melema, the handsome but false Greek. Tito wins the hand of Romola, who is the daughter of a blind scholar named Bardi. He plays her false and dies. Meantime Romola's better self, that which is swayed by the spirit of Savonarola (q.v.) and not the Medici, comes to the front; and she devotes her life to love and charity.

Rom'ulus, legendary founder and first king of Rome, son of Mars by Rhea Silvia, daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa, was, so runs the myth, exposed with Remus, his twin-brother, at the foot of the Palatine hill, where he was suckled by a she-wolf, and afterward brought up by the shepherd Faustulus and his wife, Acca Laurentia. In 753 B. C. he founded his city on the Tiber, to which he invited all homeless fugitives in the surrounding country, who carried off Sabine maidens for their wives. After Romulus had firmly established his city and secured peace between the Romans and Sabines, he was carried to heaven in a chariot of fire and later was worshiped as Quirinus.

Ro A", an Old-World bird belonging to the crow family. It is slightly smaller than the

common crow. Its plumage is purplish black, with gray on the forehead and throat. The adults lose the feathers on the face, leaving a bare spot about the bill. These birds live in noisy flocks and nest near habitations. They are common in many parts of Europe and As;a, and in late autumn migrate to the east shore of Great Britain and return in the spring

Roosevelt {ro'ze-veli), Theodore, twenty-fifth president of the United States, was born at New York City, Oct. 27, 1858, and graduated from Harvard University in 1880, In 1882 he entered the New York legislature, and rose to a commanding position as reformer. In 1895 he was made president of the police commission of New York City and

made his service notable by important reforms. On the outbreak of the Spanish-American War he was appointed assistant-secretary of the United States navy, but resigned after a few months' service and organized the 1st United States cavalry volunteers, popularly known as Roosevelt's ' Rough Riders, which he commanded, and with this body rendered distinguished service in Cuba, especially at the battle of Las Guasimas and at El Caney and San Juan hill. In 1898 he was elected Republican governor of New York, and made his term notable for the personal integrity and political soundness which characterized his administration. In 1900 he was elected vice-president of the United States on the ticket with Mr. McKinley. In the campaign preceding the election he took a conspicuous part, discussing the important questions on which the election turned with marked ability and force. On the death of President McKinley, Mr. Roosevelt became president, and in 1904 he was elected president for the term 1905-9.

The administrations of President Roosevelt were marked by events and executive and legislative acts of wide interest and importance. Among these may be mentioned the prosecution of corporations accused of violating federal laws; the recognition of the Republic of Panama ; the negotiation of a treaty by which the canal-zone across the isthmus was secured to the United States, the purchase of the old French canal and the organization and successful prosecution of the work of building the canal (see Panama Canal) ; the establishment of civil government in the Philippines; the opening of public schools in those islands; the establishment of agricultural and other bureaus for the development of their rich resources, the meeting of the first Filipino legislature in 1908; the creation of the Department of Commerce and Labor; commercial treaties with Cuba and China; the mediation of President Roosevelt between Russia and Japan, thus ending the war; the settlement with Great Britain of the Alaskan boundary; the completion of the Pacific cable to the Philippines; the Cuban revolution ; the pacification of the island under American occupation and its restoration to the newly organized republic in 1909; the passage of the pure-food bill and the railroad-rate bill ; the admission of Oklahoma into the Union in 1907; and the voyage of the American fleet of battleships around the world in 1908. Aside from his career as a public man, Mr. Roosevelt has made a mark as an author and man-of-letters ; indeed, he at one time

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THEODORE ROOSEVELT