ROSEBERY                                               1634                             ROSES, WARS OF THE

one of the most difficult to cultivate in this country. It has been said that the garden-rose does not thrive in America as . it does in Europe; yet under the skill of our horticulturists gratifying results have been secured. Hot sun and the frequent droughts that occur in our climate are the chief obstacles to the full development of the bloom. An authority says : "The rose-garden must not be in an exposed situation; it must have shelter, but it must not have shade. No boughs may darken, no drips may saturate, no roots may rob the rose. There must be a rich, strong soil of clay or loam, and the ground must be well-drained." It is by cultivation under glass in green-houses that the greatest success has been obtained. The great demand for choice roses has led to an enormous increase in the erection of commercial green-houses, especially near the large cities. There are so many obstacles to successful rose-culture, arising from climatic conditions, insect-enemies etc., that one of the many manuals issued should be consulted by anyone who undertakes the culture of this beautiful flower.

Rose'bery, Archibald Philip Primrose (Earl of), was born at London, May 7, 1847, and, after being educated at Oxford, succeeded his grandfather as fifth earl in 1868. In 1874 he was chosen president of the Social Science congress, and in 1880 was elected lord-rector of Edinburgh University. On public platforms throughout the country Lord Rosebery is welcomed as an effective and entertaining speaker, and, although a peer of the realm, enjoys in an unusual measure the good-will of the whole of the democracy. In 1886 Lord Rosebery became secretary for foreign affairs in Mr. Gladstone's cabinet. In 1894-95 he was prime minister. He is a strong imperialist, though a Liberal in politics. He has published Napoleon Bonaparte and Sir Robert Peel.

Rosecrans (ro'ze-kranz), William Starke, an American general, was born at Kingston, Delaware County, O., Sept. 6, 1819, and, after graduating at West Point in 1842, served in the army as an engineer until 1854. Being commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in 1861, he rendered efficient service in McClellan's West Virginia campaign. When the latter was appointed commander of the army of the Potomac, Rosecrans was left in command in West Virginia. After the evacuation of Corinth by the Confederates in 1862, he was placed in command of the army of the Mississippi; and in this capacity defeated Gen. Sterling Price at Iuka on the 19th of September, and a few days later successfully defended Corinth against Price and Van Dorn. He was then made commander of the army of the Cumberland; and on the first and second days of January, 1863, fought the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, in which his army won a

substantial victory, although with great loss ; but at Chickamauga in the following September he was defeated by Bragg, with a loss of over 16,000 men, the army being saved from complete destruction by the heroic valor of Gen. George H. Thomas. Rosecrans was superseded by General Grant

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GENERAL ROSECRANS

a short time after this battle, but in 1864 was placed over the department of Missouri and repelled Price's invasion of that state. He resigned his position in the army in 1867, and was appointed minister to Mexico by President Johnson in 1868, and was a member of Congress from California from 1881 to 1885. In the latter year he was appointed registrar of the United States treasury by President Cleveland. He died near Los Angeles, Cal., March 11, 1898.

Ro'ses, Wars of the, a struggle between the houses of York (White Rose) and Lancaster (Red Rose), which desolated England from the battle of St. Albans in 1455 to that of Bosworth in 1485. The house of Lancaster came to the throne when Henry IV, son of John of Gaunt, compelled his cousin, Richard II, to resign the crown in his favor in 1399. Henry IV was succeeded by Henry V, his son, in 1413 and he by Henry VI, his son, in 1422; but during the reign of the latter Richard, duke of York, began to advance his claim to the throne. In 1454 Richard was appointed protector of the realm during Henry's insanity, and on the king's recovery soon after took up arms against his rival Somerset, and defeated and crushed him at the battle of St. Albans. But such was the weakness of Henry's administration and such the unpopularity of his queen (Margaret of Anjou), that the earls of Salisbury, Warwick and March rose against him, defeating and capturing him at Northampton in 1460. The active and ambitious queen passed swiftly to the north, and in the battle of Wakefield the duke of York was defeated and slain; but his son Edward gained decisive victories over the queen's forces at Mortimer's Cross and Tow-ton (1461), after which he was crowned king