ROTIFERS                                                 1637                                       ROUGH RIDERS

The Red Shield) in the Jews' quarter of Frankfort, in which their ancestors lived. The founder of the great banking-house was Mayer Anselm Rothschild, who was born in 1743 and died in 1812. Although educated to become a Jewish rabbi, he began his career in the banking business at Frankfort, and so won the confidence of the landgrave of Hesse, that he was intrusted with the management of that prince's finances. There is a story that he hid the treasures of the landgrave, amounting to more than $5,000,000, from the French invaders of 1806, and was allowed the free use of the money for several years, thereby laying the foundations of his great fortune. Whether this be true or not, his business soon immensely prospered, and the house became a financial power that was felt by all the governments of Europe. Before the senior Rothschild's death he saw his five sons established as financial kings in the principal capitals of Europe — Anselm in Frankfort, Nathan in London, Solomon in Vienna, James in Paris and Charles in Naples. Nathan is said to have known the result of the battle of Waterloo several hours before the English government, and the knowledge was worth $1,000,000 to him. He was succeeded by his son Lionel, who distinguished himself by his efforts to secure the removal of the civil disabilities to which the Jews were formerly subject in England. See The Rothschilds by Reeves.

Rotifers (ro't-jrs), a class of minute worms abundant in fresh water. They are also found in damp moss and in the sea. They are often called wheel-animalcules, on account of the wheel-like appearance presented by the rapid movement of cilia on the front part of their bodies. The movement of these cilia produces a minute whirlpool in the water, in which the particles of food are conveyed to the animal's mouth. Although so minute and presenting a general resemblance to Infusoria (a. v.), they nevertheless are many-celled animals of complicated construction. They have a nervous system and other sets of organs distinctly developed. They are favorite objects with amateur microscopists. See Gosse's Evenings with the Microscope.

Rotterdam (rŏf ter-dam), the busiest port of Holland, stands on both sides of the Maas, 20 miles from its mouth and 45 from Amsterdam. Its trade has grown rapidly since Belgium separated from Holland, especially since the middle of last century. In 1888 the quays measured 15 miles in length, and the docks covered nearly 200 acres. Since then two new docks have been constructed, and the wharves have been extended. More than 50 per cent, of the vessels that enter the various ports of Holland (estimated by their tonnage) enter at Rotterdam. The total tonnage entering Rotterdam yearly amounts to 7,500,000

tons. From this port 5,000 to 15,000 emigrants sail yearly to the United States and other countries. Rotterdam counts among her famous sons Erasmus and Tollens the poet. Population 379,017.

Rouen (roo'an'), formerly the capital of Normandy and, after Lyons, the chief manufacturing city of France, is situated on the right bank of the Seine, about 90 miles from Paris by rail. The modern streets are well and regularly built; but a considerable part of old Rouen still remains. The Seine makes Rouen, although 80 miles from the sea, the fourth shipping-port of France, and extensive improvements in deepening the river and building wharves yearly add to its capacity and importance. Its total trade exceeds $50,000,000 a year. William the Conqueror died at Rouen in 1087. During the wars of Henry V and Henry VI of England it was subject to the English from 1419 to 1449, when it was retaken by the French under Charles VI. During its occupation by the English Joan of Arc was burned alive in the square of the city in which stands her statue. Population 116,316.

Rouge River, Quebec, Can., waters a fertile and well-wooded plain, runs from north to south, and has its principal source in a series of lakes between Joliette and Montcalm Counties. Its principal branch flows into the Ottawa between Grenville and Pointe du Chene. Timber can be floated throughout its entire length,

Rough Rid'ers. The original rough-riders were the men who carried messages through the western states before the organization of the pony-express in 1859 The name was used by William R. Cody who, in his Wild West show, had a congress of the rough riders of the world. In the Spanish-American war Congress authorized the raising of a cavalry regiment from among the wild riders and rifle-men of the Rockies and Great Plains. The mustering-places for the regiment were appointed in New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma and Indian Territory, and the men were to gather at San Antonio, Texas. The regiment was given the official title of the First United States Volunteer Cavalry, and Dr. Leonard Wood was placed in command with the rank of colonel and Theodore Roosevelt was made second in command with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Seven hundred and eighty men were originally allotted, but the number was soon raised to 1,000. Men from all parts of the country and from almost every walk in life and social position were eager to enlist. Indians, half-breeds, cowboys, miners, ranchmen, college-athletes and New York and Boston club-men were numbered among those enlisted. The uniform adopted was a slouch-hat, a blue flannel-shirt, brown trousers, leggings, boots and a large handkerchief knotted loosely around the neck. In spite of protests of commanding officers they