RUTLAND                                                  l650                                                   RYSWICK

"in the days when the judges judged," about a century before the time of David.

Rutland, Vt., is on Otter Creek, close to the Green Mountains and 67 miles southeast of Burlington. The main business is quarrying and working marble. There also are foundries and railroad-shops and it has the state workhouse, two libraries, two homes for theaged,aconvent,MasonicTemple,Shriner's Home and the Howe Scale-Works. Its marble quarries are the best in the state, and yield fine white blocks equal to the statuary marble of Carrara. The town was settled in 1770, and was one of the state capitals from 1784 to 1804. It became a city in 1892. It is the second city of Vermont in population and wealth as well as the most important railroad-center. Population 13,546.

Ruwenzori (rōō-wĕn-zō'rē), a mountain in the center of Africa, just north of the equator, between Lakes Albert and Albert Edward. It was discovered by Stanley in 1888, and is thought to be 19,000 feet high. Its top is always covered with snow. Stanley thinks this peak and some neighboring ones — Mount Gordon Bennett and Mackinnon Peak — are the mysterious Mountains of the Moon, which geographers of the middle ages put on their maps of Africa, but which modern search has been unable to discover.

Ruysdael irois'dal), Jakob,] the greatest Dutch painter of landscape, was born at Haarlem about 1625. He loved to paint forest-glades with oak-trees, sleeping pools beneath groups of trees, with an old picturesque building, a mill or a ruined temple or a glimpse of a distant town; a waterfall with rugged rocks; and coast-scenes where earth and water meet. He died in Haarlem's almshouse on March 14, 1682.

Ruyter (rī'tēr), Michael Adrianszoon de, Dutch admiral, was born at Flushing, Holland, March 24, 1607, of poor parents who sent him to sea when only 11. When war broke out between Holland and England in 1652, a fleet was given to Ruyter. With it he beat off an attack by the English, and attacked Admiral Blake off the mouth of the Thames, but was forced to retire. Two months later he totally defeated Blake off Dover. When Tromp was killed off the Texel in 1653, Ruyter was made vice-admiral. For service in 1659 he was ennobled by the king of Denmark. The years 1661-3 were taken up in checking the piracy of the African states on the Mediterranean. War again broke out between Holland and England in 1664, and in 1ŎŎ6 Ruyter fought four days against Monk and Prince Rupert, finally driving off the British fleet, but a month later was driven back to Holland. In 166 7 Ruyter threw London into turmoil by sailing up the Medway as far as Rochester, burning English ships, and entering the Thames a second time as high as Gravesend, besides attacking Harwich. In 1672 the Dutch admiral fought the French and Eng-

lish in Solebay, and twice defeated Prince Rupert and D'Estres. After this defeat England made peace. In 1676 the Dutch-Spanish fleet fought the French on the east of Sicily. Ruyter was wounded, for the first time in his life of battles, and died a week later, April 29, 1676. Ruyter was a man of piety, simple in his manners and of unflinching courage. As a seaman he ranks with Nelson and Blake.

Rye, the well-known species of Secale cere-ale, a grass which probably is from western Asia. It closely resembles and is related to wheat. It is a hardy grain and is grown in cool regions. In northern Europe it is a most important crop, being used there largely in bread-making. In the United States it is used chiefly in the manufacture D malt and spirituous liquors. _ Russia produces the most rye, her crop in 1906 being 1,439,900,000 bushels, Germany coming second with 378,948,000 bushels. In the United States rye is fifth of the cereals in importance, the crop of 1907 being 31,566,000 bushels.

Rye-House Plot. In 1682-3, whie a scheme was formed among the leading Whigs of England to raise the nation in arms against Charles II, another scheme was planned by a few fiercer spirits of the party to waylay and kill the king. It was to be carried out at a farm near Hertford, belonging to one of the plotters, called Rye-House. The plot failed because the house at Newmarket, where the king was staying, caught fire accidentally and caused Charles to leave sooner than intended. Both the greater and the less conspiracy were discovered before long. Though Monmouth, Russell and other Whig leaders had nothing to do with the Rye-House plot, the indignation aroused by it throughout the country took in the whole party. Russell, Sidney and Walcot, the last being of the plot, were brought to the block.

Ry'erson, Adolphus, was born in Norfolk County (Ontario) in 1803, ordained as a Methodist minister in 1825, and founded The Christian Guardian in 1829. This paper still is the recognized organ of the Methodist Church, and has continuously wielded great influence. Dr. Ryerson was appointed principal of Victoria College, Cobourg, in 1844 and chief superintendent for education; and examined the educational institutions of Europe in 1844-5. In 1846 and subsequent years he laid the foundations of a system of public-school education, which is the pride of Ontario. He died at Toronto on Feb. 19, 1882.

Ryswick (rtz'wk), Peace of, was signed at Ryswick, a Dutch village two miles south of The Hague, by France, England, the Netherlands and Spain on September 21, 1697, and by Germany on Oct. 30. The treaty wound up the bloody contest of nearly nine years between France and the allies, which had been carried on since 1688.