S (ěs), the nineteenth letter, is a consonant, often called a sibilant because the true s is a hissing or voiceless consonant. Its proper sound occurs in best, hiss, so. It also has the sounds of z, as in has; sh, as in passion, sensual, version; and zh, as in visual. At the beginning of words s generally has the hissing sound, but at the middle and end its sound is determined by custom. In a few words s is silent, as aisle, débris, island, isle. The nearness of S to th caused th in verbs to become s, as loveth, loves. S sometimes changes to st, as hoist from hoise.

Sab'bath (from shabath, to rest), the seventh day of the week, was set aside in the Hebrew Scriptures as a day of rest and devotion. It was observed by the Hebrews after the Exodus in commemoration of their deliverance from bondage (Deut. v:/j), and perhaps preceded the Sinaitic legislation which merely confirmed its observance. The "Remember the Sabbath" of the Decalogue was followed in the giving of the laws by many regulations for the day, prohibitive of various forms of labor, and by commands to keep certain observances. The day was significant of the finishing of creation, of freedom from bondage and as a token of covenant. In the Epistles of the New Testament the keeping of the Jewish Sabbath is left optional with Christians {Col. ĪI:i6-if), who are exhorted to observe the first day of each week as the Lord's Day {cf. Rev. 1:10). The medieval schoolmen taught that the observance of the Lord's Day superseded the observance of the Sabbath by ordinance and custom of the church rather than by divine law.

Sabine {sá-bēn') River, Tex., rises in Hunt County, in the northeast, and for part of its course forms the boundary between Louisiana and Texas. It enters Sabine Lake and thence, through Sabine Pass, the Gulf of Mexico. Its length is 500 miles; but it is only slightly navigable. Works have been carried out which have made the pass at the mouth of the river a fairly safe passage for small vessels. (See Port Arthur Ship-Canal). The possession of this river was one of the historic boundary-questions between Spain and the United States.

Sa'bines, an old Italian people who lived first among the central Apennines, but afterwards reached down into the western plains,

even to Rome itself. According to the story, a colony of Sabines occupied the Quirinal Hill in Rome, but were at last joined to the Latin followers of RomurUs on the Palatine Hill, and so helped to make the Roman people. It is said that Romulus, finding it hard to get wives for his followers, who were looked down upon as runaways and criminals, invited the Sabines to a feast and games. While the games were going on, the garrison of the Palatine seized the unsuspecting women, whom they carried off to be their wives. After several wars the Sabines outside of Rome were conquered in 241 B. C.

Sa'ble. See Marten.

Sable Island, a low-lying island in the Atlantic, 100 miles south of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, to which it belongs. It is made of two sand-ridges, with a lagoon between them. The island has been called the sailors' grave, from the many shipwrecks happening there. Since 1873 three lighthouses have been built, of which two have been swept away and one undermined, as the island is fast sinking. Early in the 19th century it was 40 miles long, but now it is not more than 20. Near it are sandbanks and valuable fisheries.

Sack'ett's Har'bor, N. Y., a village on a bay of Lake Ontario at the mouth of Black River, 12 miles west of Watertown. The harbor is one of the best on the lake. It is a typical military town. Madison Barracks, regimental headquarters, are here. In the War of 1812 Sackett's Harbor was the headquarters of the northern division of the American fleet, and several war-vessels were built here. It was twice attacked by the British, who were driven off. Sackett's Harbor is becoming a popular summer-resort. Population (1910) 868; excluding the civilians living on the military reservation.

Sacramento, Cal. {sak-rŕ-men'to), capital of California, is on the east bank of Sacramento River at the mouth of the American, 90 miles by rail northeast of San Francisco. The main public buildings are the capitol, which cost about $2,000,000; the courthouse, hospital, postoffice, a Roman Catholic cathedral, Crocker Art-Gallery, and the Masonic and Odd Fellows' Halls. There are flour and planing mills, carriage, box and broom factories, foundries, potteries, spice-mills and a cannery. Here also are the shops of the Southern