SALEM                                                        1665                                                       SALIVA

Museum has a rare exhibit of ethnological value and many other objects of varied interest. The Áthenĉum contains 25,000 volumes, and the free public library has upward of 40,000. Besides a well-sustained system of public schools, it has three parochial schools and is the seat of a flourishing state normal school. It has 21 churches, a Y. M. C. A. organization, with a fine, large building, an endowed institution for work among boys, known as Salem Fraternity, and a well-equipped and well-endowed hospital, which accommodates 100 patients. The city has been unjustly identified with the witchcraft delusion of 1692 from the fact that the courts sat here at which the accused were tried. The recovery from this delusion was earlier here than in other parts of this country or in England. (See Mather, Cotton, and Witchcraft). The city formerly enjoyed a large and extensive foreign commerce. This has become superseded by an extensive coasting-trade, of which the reception of coal for distribution by rail and the shipment of ice form the chief items. Population


Salem, Or., the capital, is on Willamette River, 52 miles southwest of Portland. It has good water-power and some manufactures. Here are the capitol, penitentiary, insane asylum, schools for the blind, deaf and dumb and feeble-minded, besides Willamette University (Methodist) and an excellent system of public schools, enrolling 2,000 pupils and employing 45 teachers. Salem was settled in 1834, and became the capital in i860. It is served by the Southern Pacific Railroad, and has electric connection with Portland. Population 14,094.

Salerno (sá-lēr'no), a city of southern Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 33 miles southeast of Naples. An old Norman castle surmounts the hill behind the city. The beautiful Gothic cathedral of St. Matthew has a quadrangle of porphyry and granite pillars in front of it. The city was celebrated in the middle ages for its university. Population 42,727.

Sal'ic Law, a collection of the popular laws of the Salic Franks, in which the succession to what are called Salic lands was confined to males, probably from the importance of getting military service from the chief land-owners. This law was afterwards applied to the succession to the French crown.

Salisbury (sah'bĕr-ï), a cathedral city of England, stands near Avon River (not Shakspere's), 84 miles southwest of London. Its famous cathedral is built in early English style, and is 473 feet long and 111 wide; the spire is the highest in England — 400 feet. In the large close which surrounds the cathedral is the bishop's palace. Blackmore Museum contains a fine collection of American an-

tiquities. Among the bishops have been Cardinal Campeggio, Jewell, Hooker, Fuller, Barrow, Liddon and Wordsworth. Old Sarum, a mile north of the present city, was a castle and a place of importance in Roman times. Here Canute died, and here William the Conqueror gathered the barons to renew their oath of fealty. Population 21,900.

Salisbury, Robert A. T. Qascoyne Cecil, Marquis of, English statesman and prime minister, was born at Hatfield, Herts, Feb. 3, 1830, and educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford. In 1866 he entered Lord Derby's ministry as secretary o f state for India (under the title o f Lord Cranbourne). On the death of his father in 1867, he entered t '1 e house of lords and took rank as the foremost debater in the upper chamber. In 1878 he acted as joint plenipotentiary of Great Britain at the Congress of Berlin, and two years later became secretary of state for foreign affairs. When the Earl of Beaconsfield died in 1881, Lord Salisbury became the recognized leader of the Conservative party. When the Gladstone ministry resigned in 1885, he became premier and secretary for foreign affairs. Owing to feeble support received by his government he resigned affairs to Mr. Gladstone, but, on the latter being defeated on the second reading of the Irish Home-Rule bill, he again returned to power. In 1892 Mr. Gladstone and he oncè more exchanged the premiership, and in 1895, on the resignation of Lord Rosebery, Lord Salisbury formed his third adminstration, in coalition with Liberal-Unionists, from which he retired in 1902. In 1864 he was elected chancellor of the University of Oxford. In his younger days he was a contributor to The Quarterly Review, but latei found relaxation from the cares of office in his laboratory, where he experimented in chemistry and electricity. He died on Aug. 22, 1003.

Saliva (sā-lī'vd), one of the digestive fluids, is mainly the product of the salivary glands, of which there are three kinds, named from Greek and Latin words denoting their position — the parotid, the submaxillary and the sublingual, with ducts or canals which carry the saliva into the mouth. Here it is mixed with mucus, from the mucous membrane lining the mouth, forming ordinary or mixed saliva.

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