SANTO DOMINGO                                   1677                                                  SAPPHIRE

Sampson. To "bottle up" the Spanish vessels in the harbor, Lieut. R. P. Hobson took the Merrimac into the narrow channel between the Morro forts, at the exit of the harbor, and there sank her with torpedoes. This gallant deed was effected on the night of June 3, and was rendered all the more hazardous, not only by the blowing up of the ship, but by the fire drawn upon her from the enemy. Hobson and his volunteer crew were all made prisoners, two only of their number having been wounded. A few days after this a force of United States marines landed at Caimanera and formed Camp McCalla; General Shaffer landed a division at Baiquiri; and General Wheeler another at Siboney, the landing being covered by the guns of the fleet. These forces, proceeding toward Santiago, were met near Sevilla, six miles inland from Baiquiri, by a Spanish force, when the battle of Las Guasi-mas was fought. Following upon this {July 1st), occurred the two bloody engagements at San Juan and El Caney, in which the Spanish forces were defeated and driven within the fortifications of Santiago. Then came the fatal dash of Cervera's squadron out of the harbor, which" Hobson had not succeeded in closing, and its speedy annihilation on July 3. Operations against the city were pressed by General Shaffer, resulting in the surrender, July 14, of the city and province together with over 20,000 Spanish troops under General Total. Population of the town about 50,000. See Spanish-American War and Cuba

San'to Domin'go, The Republic of, was founded in 1844 The present president is Ramon Caceres, the holder of the presidency being elected by an electoral college for four years. The legislative power is vested in a national congress composed of 24 deputies. The area of the republic is estimated at 18 045 square miles with a population of about 416,000, which, unlike that of Haiti, is chiefly composed of a mixed race of the original Spanish inhabitants, the aborigines, mulattoes and negroes, and a considerable number of whites or of inhabitants of European descent, who speak Spanish and, in the towns, both English and French. The capital, at the mouth of the Ozama, is Santo Domingo. Santiago is estimated to have 12,000 inhabitants; Macoris 5,000; and Puerto Plata, the chief port, about 6,000. The republic has about 300 public schools, with some 10,000 pupils. The country is rich in timber, as also in minerals. Its chief exports, however, are sugar, cocoa, bananas, coffee and leaf-tobacco; rice is also grown. The imports in 1906 were a little over two million dollars in value; while the exports amounted to $3,086,338. There are about 130 miles of railway and 43c of telegraph line. _ See Haiti. Consult "Hazard's Santo Domingo and Kimball's Life in Santo Domingo.

Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, is on the southern coast of Haiti. It was founded by Columbus as early as 1494. The main buildings are the Gothic cathedral, where the ashes of Columbus found rest from 1536 to 1796, the hospital, arsenal and government buildings. A wall surrounds the town, and forts and batteries defend the harbor. Population 16,000.

Santos=Dumont (sān-ōs-dz'mn'), Alberto, is a balloonist and inventor born in Brazil in 1873, who learned practical mechanics on his father's private railroad at the same time that he attended the school of mines at Minas. He was a student and graduate of the University of Rio Janeiro; and in France entered the aeronautic school. In 1897 Santos-Dumont made no less than 20 balloon-ascensions. In 1898 he caused a dirigible balloon to be made of a cylindrical shape. At the present time he has an official connection with the French government, which has an option upon his airships. Santos-Dumont has made experiments not only with airships but with automobiles; but he has chosen to forego the rights of patent to all his inventions, which are freely presented to those who have skill and courage to use them. See Aeronautics.

Sāo Francisco (sn frăn-sēsh'k7>), a large river of Brazil, rises in the southwest part of Minas Geraes, in its lower course separates Bahia and Sergipe from Pernambuco and Alagoas, and after 1,800 miles falls into the Atlantic. It is navigable as far as the mouth of the Paraopeba, except at three points, one of which is the falls of Paulo Affonso (275 feet), around which traffic is carried by rail.

So San Paulo (soun pou'lb~6), capital of the Brazilian state of the same name, stands on a wide plain, four miles from Rio Tiete and'310 southwest of Rio de Janeiro. There are a handsome public garden and beautiful suburbs. The main buildings are the government palace, formerly a Jesuit College, the bishop's palace and a celebrated law-school. Sao Paulo is the headquarters of the coffee trade, and four railroads join it to the coffee-districts. There are a number of factories. Population 332,000. The state covers 112,307 square miles and has 2,279,608 inhabitants.

Sap, Ascent of. See Water, ascent of.

Sapphire (saf'lr), the most precious of gems except the diamond and ruby, is, like the latter, a variety of corundum. The name is commonly given to the beautiful blue variety of corundum, but stones of other shades, as colorless or pink, sometimes receive the name. Purplish or greenish colors are undesirable, while clouds, milky spots, flakes or stripes show flaws. It is found crystallized, usually in six-sided prisms, ending in six-sided pyramids. It is sometimes found imbedded in gneiss, but