SAXONY                                                     *686                                        SCALE-INSECTS

Loire, but these settlements soon became a part of the kingdpm of the Franks. At home the Old-Saxons widened their country till it embraced all between the Rhine and Elbe, the North Sea and the Harz Mountains. Saxons and Franks together destroyed the Thuringian kingdom in 531. The Frankish war of conquest was waged against the Saxons from 719 to 804, the Franks at last conquering under Charlemagne, in spite of the stubborn defense of the Saxons under their leader Wittekind. The Saxons gave up their pagan worship with their freedom, and accepted Christianity.

Sax'ony, a German kingdom, in area the fifth and in population the third state of the empire; it covers 5,787 square miles, and has a population of 4,500,601. For the present state of Saxony see German Empire.

After the division of the territories ruled over by Charlemagne, the Frankish conqueror of the Saxons, that nation became a part of Austrasia. Its first duke was Otto (880-912). His son Henry made himself master of all the territories included in the present kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian province of Saxony, the smaller Saxon duchies and more besides. The German emperors after 1024 were Franconians and their greatest enemies were the Saxon dukes, especially Henry the Proud of Bavaria and Henry the Lion. Rudolph II (1356-70) first took the title of Ele-tor of Saxony. During the Thirty Years' War Elector John George I (1611-56) sided with the Protestants, but in 1635 made his peace with the emperor, on which account his lands were ravaged by the Swedes for ten years. Frederick Augustus I (1694-1733) became a Roman Catholic and was chosen king of Poland. After that the headship of the Protestant states of Germany passed to the Elector of Brandenburg, and to this day the court of Saxony is Roman Catholic. Saxony warred against Charles XII of Sweden and suffered greatly at his hands; was defeated by Prussia in the second Silesian War; and was conquered by Frederick the Great in the Seven Years' War. Frederick Augustus III (1763-1827) proclaimed himself king of Saxony, and sent his army to support Napoleon. For this the Congress of Vienna took over half his territory to form the new province of Prussian Saxony. In the Austro-Prussian war of i860 Saxony sided with Austria, was defeated, and joined the North German Confederation. In the Franco-Prussian War the Saxon army fought on the side of Prussia, and since 1871 Saxony has been a part of the German empire.

Saxophone (săks'§-f§n), the name of a group of musical instruments invented by Adolphe Sax. (See Saxhorn.) The saxophone is a conical, brass tube, sounded by

a mouthpiece furnished with a single reed like that of a clarinet, and is made in as many different keys as the saxhorn. It has 20 holes, covered by keys and studs, for the first three fingers of each hand. All saxophones are fingered alike. They are greatly valued in military music, but are not much used in orchestras.

Sax'ton, Joseph, American inventor, was born at Huntingdon, Pa., March 22, 1799, and died at Washington, D. C, Oct 26, 1873. At an early age he showed much mechanical ingenuity, which manifested itself later in inventions and improvements in connection with the mechanism of clocks ; he constructed the clock for the tower of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, and superintended the construction of the machinery and delicate weighing-balances for the Philadelphia mint. He spent some years, early in the thirties, in England, and while there constructed a magneto-electrical machine, by which the first magnetic spark was obtained; he made much of the apparatus used by Wheatstone, the physicist and inventor; and devised a locomotive differential pulley. Among his other inventions were a deep-sea thermometer, an immersed hydrometer and a self-registering tide-gauge. He was one of the founders of the American Academy of Sciences.

Sayce (sŃs), Archibald Henry, one of the greatest of living philologists and archaeologists, was born at Shirehampton, England, Sept. 25, 1846. After attending Grosvenor College at Bath, he entered Queen's College, Oxford, in 1865, and became a fellow and tutor of his college. In 1876 he was appointed assistant to Max. MŘller in the chair of comparative philology at Oxford, which he resigned m 1890, Professor Sayce was a member of the Old Testament revision-committee in 1874. The most important among his many books, which rank among the first in scholarship and value, are Ancient Empires of the East, Fresh Light from the Monuments, The Hittites and Races of the Old Testament.

Scale (in plants). The word has two applications. Epidermal outgrowths, which technically are hairs, sometimes assume the form of scales which more or less overlap one another. The more general application of the term, however, is in connection with the protecting leaves of scaly buds or the reduced leaves of underground stems. Such leaves are not green, are not much developed, and often are firmer than ordinary leaf-tissue. The scales of underground stems probably are merely reduced leaves, with no function; the scales of aerial buds, however, are distinctly protective organs, and not only are firm and resistant, but are frequently covered with hairs or gummy products.

Scale=In'sects, the name of a large number of flat insects, with scale-like bodies, of