Carboniferous limestones are found in Morocco and the Sahara and Egypt. In the southern part of the continent no marine rocks of the period are known. In Cape Colony the Witteberg quartzites, which overlie the Devonian,, have Lower Carboniferous plants, and in the Zambesi district near the east coast is a coal basin of Upper Carboniferous age, which has a flora like that of the higher Coal Measures of Europe.

According to Freeh, the Carboniferous of Australia is confined to the Lower division and appears in the eastern half of the continent, and in Tasmania. In the second half of the period was a time of elevation and erosion.

In South America the Carboniferous is not nearly so extensive as the Devonian; the Lower Carboniferous is principally composed of sandstones, which in Argentina contain plants so similar to those of South Africa and Australia as to indicate the probability of a land connection between these continents; limestones of this date have been reported from Chili. The Upper division, largely of limestones, has been found in Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil; in the latter it has a great extension in the Amazon valley and belongs to the uppermost part of the system.


The striking uniformity of the climate during the Carboniferous is indicated by the distribution of the fossils, more especially of the plants, which are almost the same in the Arctic and Tropical regions. The formation of coal in vast peat-bogs does not imply a tropical climate, but rather conditions of moisture and moderate temperature. In the Lower Carboniferous, aridity prevailed in northeastern America, and in the Upper, gypsum and rock-salt were formed east of the Ural Mountains. There is some evidence of an American ice-epoch at the- end of the Lower Carboniferous.