She has also to resist the existing tendency to over-elaboration in preparation, for which, unfortunately, teachers of cooking are in part responsible, unless it may be that the stress of social rivalry and the power of fashion or imitation may be held responsible to a still greater degree for such ill-advised practices.

Greater, perhaps, than these problems are those which more directly result from the fact that food is no longer manufactured in the home, but is prepared in factories, often to the extent that no further labor is needed to make it ready for the table. The housekeeper was formerly personally familiar with all the processes through which the food she used had passed, even if she did not actually perform them. She could base her judgment as to their value or quality on. personal knowledge. In the case of foods prepared or manufactured outside the home, this is not possible. Accordingly she must always be on her guard lest she buy fraudulent or unwholesome foods. Fortunately public sentiment is demanding that she be protected in her rights by legislative control, and pure food laws are becoming more generally adopted, and, with a fuller realization of their importance on the part of the consumer, will be more rigidly enforced.

There are, however, pitfalls in this direction. A few instances will indicate their general character. The housekeeper must remember, for example, that a food may be perfectly wholesome and yet have glucose in it; for glucose, in spite of its evil repute, is the substance into which all starch and sugar must be changed in order to be absorbed by the body. The use of preservatives is not necessarily harmful, as has been shown by the practice of depending on salt, sugar, vinegar, creosote and other substances in smoke. Coloring matter may properly be used to make foods more attractive, and the housekeeper visiting the Pure Food Show will not be unduly alarmed by sensational exhibits of fabrics dyed with coloring substances when she remembers the fruit stains on her table linen or the attractive colors of her fresh vegetables. The use of so-called substitutes, for example, when apples are made the basis for a jelly or when oleomargarine is substituted for butter, results not in harm to the health, but, if the price which is paid is:

14. What are saved in buying preserved fruit?

15. Is the general impression true that the feeding of a large number of people costs proportionally less than the feeding of a few?

16. Give a list of the factors which increase and of those which decrease the cost when a large number are fed.

17. What measures do you take to learn whether the quantity and quality of the food are what you pay for?

Food. Bibliography

Food and the Principles of Dietetics. Robert Hutchison. New York: William Wood & Co.

Nutrition of Man. R: H. Chittenden. New York: F. A. Stokes Co.

Chemistry of Food and Nutrition. H. C. Sherman. New York: The Macmillan Co.

Principles of Human Nutrition. W. H. Jordan. New York: The Macmillan Co.

Household Management Bertha M. Terrill. Chicago: American School of Household Economics.

Home Problems from a New Standpoint. Caroline L. Hunt. Boston: Whitcomb & Barrows.

Home Economics. Maria Parloa. New York: The Century Co.

Cost of Food. Ellen H. Richards. New York: John Wiley & Son.

Food and Dietetics. Alice P. Norton. Chicago: American School of Household Economics.