There are two interesting tendencies in sanitary theory and administration concerning which the householder should inform himself. The first, in brief, is to lay less stress than in the past on the environment and more on personal contact as the medium for the spread of disease. The second is the burdening of the sanitary code and the health department with matters which in the light of modern knowledge have nothing to do with health, except occasionally in a very remote degree. For example, the disposal of household rubbish and garbage and the abatement of the smoke nuisance should be controlled by legal enactments enforced by competent expert officials, but on the ground of decency, order, beauty, and cleanliness, rather than on the ground of their effect on health. On the other hand, a careful study will show that new enactments affecting housing and involving health, that will secure such facilities for cleanliness as simpler plumbing and a cheaper and more abundant water supply, are gravely needed.

It is not fitting to discuss the details of house sanitation in this place. It should be noted, however, that, though damp cellars, dark rooms, and "sewer gas" are now known not to be the cause of tuberculosis, diphtheria, or typhoid fever, it is generally believed that when a person is in vigorous health or has a high degree of so-called "vitality," he is usually able to resist the attacks made by the germs of those and similar diseases.

It is undoubtedly true that one of the factors in securing this vigor of body is the environment. Proper shelter then demands free movement of clean air both without and within the house, means for rapid and complete removal of body wastes, plenty of diffused light, such freedom from standing water, rubbish, dirty streets, and smoky air as would disturb peace of mind, ample facilities for cleanliness, and plenty of space to secure, at least at intervals, that degree of privacy which health of body and of soul alike demand. Such are briefly some of the sanitary considerations to be observed in housing.

On the economic side there are also interesting tendencies to be observed. The rapid development of urban life, fluctuations in the kind of employment available with the accompanying necessity of change of residence, rapid transit, and the development of the apartment house are some of the modern influences which affect housing. The homestead known to many generations of the same family has practically disappeared. It is even growing to be a matter of uncertainty whether a family should own the house in which they live. Nevertheless, there are circumstances under which the question may very properly arise, and then considerations of economy, convenience, the future development of the neighborhood, financial security, comfort, probability of permanence, educational value, and sentiment, all have a bearing on the proper solution.

Another question which faces the modern housekeeper is that of the relative advantages of the house, whether owned or rented, and the apartment. The house furnishes greater freedom, privacy, space, and comfort, but these must be weighed against the uncertain cost of operating, greater amount of service needed, more restricted opportunity for absence, and usually greater distance from business, school, and friends, involving greater expense in car fares and in time and strength than would generally be required in the case of an apartment.

Shelter. Questions

1. To what extent have twentieth century ideals and practices modified the idea that "a man's home is his castle," over which he has supreme control?

2. What public agencies have you in your town for controlling housing conditions?

3. What private agencies are there for the same purpose?

4. What general principles does sanitary science teach?

5. Discuss the value of the practice of the principles of sanitary science as an investment.

6. What dangers may follow from the adoption of sanitary improvements?

7. What is a frequent motive for the adoption of so-called improvements and what is the true one?

8. What changes in construction are taking place (a) for good? (b) for bad?

9. What sanitary requirements should we make in housing beyond those we already have?

10. What architectural devices or changes in the house in which you live would you suggest which would tend to improve the sanitary conditions?

11. What are the factors in the ownership of a house, e.g., taxes?

12. What are the factors of cost in the rental of an apartment, e.g., janitor service?

13. What are the factors of cost in the rental of a room in a hotel, e. g., bedding?

14. What causes lead to renting rather than owning a house?

15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of both?

16. What are the advantages of apartment house life? What are its disadvantages?

17. What factors govern the amount of the income paid for housing?

18. One-third of the income was formerly considered the right proportion to be paid for rent. Why is it fixed lower now?

19. Does higher rent always mean more total expenditure?

20. What architectural changes in your house would you suggest which would lessen the amount of housework to be done?

21. How may the demoralizing habits which often come from renting rather than owning a home be prevented?

Shelter. Bibliography

Household Management. Bertha M. Terrill. Chicago:

American School of Home Economics. Cost of Living, Chapter IV (Food). Ellen H. Richards. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cost of Shelter. Ellen H. Richards. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

House Sanitation. Marion Talbot. Boston: Whitcomb & Barrows.

Practical Hygiene. Charles Harrington. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Care of a House. T. M. Clark. New York: The Macmillan Co.

The House. Isabel Bevier. Chicago: American School of Home Economics. Principles of Sanitary Science and the Public Health.

W. T. Sedgwick, New York: The Macmillan Co. Housing Reform.

Lawrence Veiller. New York: Charities Publication Society.

Household Hygiene. S. Maria Elliot. Chicago: American School of Home Economics.

The Standard of Living, Chapter V (Clothing). F. H. Streightoff. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.