The twelfth century marked a wonderful revival in the study of the Roman law. This revival centered around the law schools of the Italian universities, to which students flocked from all parts of Europe. The most famous of all these schools were those at Bologna. To give to these Italian schools a practical monopoly of this instruction the teaching of civil law at the University of Paris was prohibited by a papal bull.

1 Lee's Historical Jurisprudence, p. 386.

So great did the interest in this study during this century become, that it was feared by some that all other forms of study were to suffer in consequence. Nor was this movement entirely theoretical, its practical side was shown by the rapid changes in the laws throughout western Europe, changes seeking to incorporate into these legal systems the old established principles of Roman law.