When the present national banking system was established, and for more than twenty years afterwards, an express statute authorized the National Banks to sue and be sued in the federal courts. Since 1887 it has been provided by law that for the purposes of the jurisdiction of the federal courts national banks are to be held to be citizens of the States in which they are respectively located, and the federal courts have no other jurisdiction over controversies to which they are a party than they would have were such banks citizens of such States.39