Pare also relates that a courtezan, having sprinkled the meat given by her to one of her lovers, with pounded cantharides, the wretched youth was seized with a violent priapism and loss of blood at the anus, of which he died.

Ferdinand the Catholic, of Castile, owed his death to the effects of a philter administered to him by his queen, Germaine de Foix, in the hope of enabling him to beget an heir to the crowns of Aragon, Navarre, and Naples. "Plusieurs dames," says Mignot,* "attachees a la Reine, lui indiquerent un breu-vage qu'il fallait, disoit on donner a Ferdinand pour ranimer ses forces. Cette princese fit composer ce remede, sous ses yeux, et le presenta au roi qui desirait, plus qu'elle, d'avoir un fils, Depuis ce jour, la sante de Ferdinand s'aflaiblit, au point qu'il ne la recouvra jamais".

The life of the celebrated Wallenstein, one of the heroes of the"Thirty years' war," was for a long time endangered from the effects of a potion administered to him by his countess. "De retour dans sa patrie, il (Wallenstein) sut tnspirer une vive passion a une riche veuve de la famille de Wiezkova, et eut l'adresse de se faire prefere a des rivaux d'un rang plus eleve; mais cette union fut troublee par l'extreme jalousie de sa femme; ou pretend meme qu'elle fit usage de philtres que penserent compromettre le sante de son mari."†

Cardinal Dubois, ‡ the favourite and minister of Philip Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, during the minority of Louis XV., gives the following amusing account of a love potion, to the powerful effects of which he considered himself indebted for his existence. "An old bachelor, of Brivas, had engaged to marry a young lady of only sixteen years of age. The night before the wedding he assembled the wise heads of his family for the purpose of consulting upon the best means of enabling him to perform his part creditably in the approaching amorous conflict. Opinions were divided; some maintained that nature was adequate to the occasion at any age, while others recommended a certain preparation in the Pharmacopeia, which would amply supply the defect of youth in a sexaginary husband. The old gentleman chose, without hesitation, the surest and speediest of these two chances of success. The prescription was sent to the shop of my worthy father, who was an apothecary in the town, and he accordingly immediately set to work, and made up a draught which would have awakened desire even in Methusaleh himself. This valuable philter was not to be sent to the party till the next day.

It was late, and my mother," continues the Cardinal,"desired her husband to retire to rest and he, tired with his day's work, quickly undressed himself, blew out his candle, and deposited himself, like a loving husband, by the side of his dear spouse. Awakening in the middle of the night, he complained of being excessively thirsty, and his better half, roused from her slumbers, got up in the dark, and groping about for something wherewith to quench his thirst, her hand encountered the invigorating philter, which it truly proved to be, for I came into the world precisely nine months after that memorable night."*

* Histoire de Ferdinand et Isabelle, Tom II., 326. Paris, 1766,

† Biographie Universelle, Art. Wallenstein.

‡ Detested by the Parisians, Dubois was the object of innumerable cari-catures, of which the most sanglante was one representing him "a genoux aux pieds d'une fille de joie qui prenait de ce sale ecoulement qui afflige les femmes, tous les mois, pour lui en rougir sa calotte el le faire Cardinal." See Erotika Biblion. Paris, 1792, p. 52.

Although love-potions and philters, as well as the other preparations had recourse to, for animating and arousing the organs for reproduction frequently owe, as we have shewn, their advantages to cantharides, and are, but to often productive of terrible effects, yet it cannot be denied that when adminstered by a skilful, cautious, and experienced physician, they have restored the desired vigour when all other means have failed.

* Memoires du Cardinal Dubois, vol. I., p. 3.

The flesh of the Schinck (scincus) an amphibious animal of the lizard species, and sometimes of the land lizard, or crocodile, is said, when reduced to powder and drunk with sweet wine, to act miraculously in exciting the venereal action; it is also prepared for the same object in the form of the electuary known by the name of Diasatyrion. Ælius recommends that in order to cause the erection of the virile organ, the flesh of this animal should be taken from the vicinity of its genital apparatus.* It is a well known fact that the Egyptian peasants carried their lizards to Cairo, whence they were forwarded, via Alexandria, to Venice and Marseilles. This species of lizard, which feeds upon aromatic plants was also used as an aphrodisiac by the Arabs, and the well known anti-poisonous quality of its flesh had caused it, in more ancient times, to be employed as an ingredient in the far-famed Mithridates, or antidote to poison. Browne informs us † "that in Africa, no part of the Materia Medica is so much in requisition as those which stimulate to venereal pleasure.

The Lacerta scincus in powder, and a thousand other articles of the same kind, are in continual demand." The plant Chervri (sandix ceropolium) is also accounted as capable of exciting amorous propensities, so much so that Tiberius, the Roman emperor, the most lascivious, perhaps, of men, is said to have exacted a certain quantity of it from the Germans, by way of tribute, for the purpose of rendering himself vigorous with his women and catamites'; and Venette says that the Swedish ladies give it to their husbands when they find them flag in their matrimonial duties. *

* Ælius Tetrabilis, I., Disc, Chap. 32 and 33. † Browne's Travels in Africa, etc., p. 343.

But it was upon the plant called Satyrion (orchis mascula) that those who required aphrodisiacal remedies rested their most sanguine hopes. This plant, Theophrastus assures us, possesses so wonderful a property of exciting venery that a mere application of it to the parts of generation will enable a man to accomplish the act of love twelve times successively. Speaking of this plant Venette † says that the herb which the Indian King Androphyl sent to King Antiochus was that it was so efficacious in exciting men to amorous enjoyment as to surpass in that quality, all other plants, the Indian who was the bearer of it assuring the king "qu'elle lui avait donne de la vigueur pour soixante dix embrassements," but he owned "qu'aux derniers efforts ce qu'il rendait n'etait plus de semence".