An endeavour was made to introduce these Bernasco padlocks into France during the reign of Henry II., and a shop was opened by an Italian at the fair of St. Germain, where they were publicly sold, and in such numbers, that the French gallants, becoming alarmed, threatened to throw the vendor into the Seine, if he did not pack up his merchandise and decamp, which he immediately did for fear that the menace might be put in execution.

* "There (in the arsenal) are also various whimsical bolts and locks with which he (Carrera) used to keep his concubines confined. Travels in Italy. See The World, vol. 18, p. 154.

Voltaire describes the Cadenas as originating with Pluto, who, jealous of his wife Proserpine, was advised:

Qu'un cadenas, de la structure nouvelle,

Fut le garant de sa fidelite,

A la vertu par la force asservie,

Plus ne sera l'amant favorise.

En un moment, feux, enclumes, fourneaux,

Sont prepares aux gouffres infernaux;

Tisiphone, de ces lieux, serruriere,

Au cadenas met la main, la premiere,

Elle l'acheve et des mains de Pluton Proserpine recut ce triste don, Or ce secret aux enfers invente Chez les humains tot apres fut porte Et depuis ce temps dans Venise et dans Rome.

Il n'est pedant, bourgeois, ou gentilhomme Qui pour garder l'honneur de sa maison De cadenas n'ait sa provision.* This sage advice, a loud applause From all the damned assembly draws; And straight, by order of the State, Was registered on brass by fate;

* Le Cadenas. This poem was composed by the author when he was only eighteen years of age, and it was occasioned by a lady who was in the circumstances here spoken of.

That moment, in the shades below, They anvils beat and bellows blow. Tisiphoned, the blacksmith's trade Well understood; the locks she made: Proserpina, from Pluto's hand Receiving, wore it by command. This lock, which hell could frame alone, Soon to the human race was known; In Venice, Rome, and all about it, No gentleman or cit's without it. *

We shall close this our third essay with the amusing summary of anti-aphrodisiacal remedies, as given by Rabelais.

"You say," said the physician Rondibilis to Panurge, "that you feel in you the pricking stings of sensuality, by which you are stirred up to venery. I find in our faculty of medicine, and we have founded our opinion therein upon the deliberate resolution and final decision of the ancient Platonics, that carnal concupiscence is cooled and quelled five several ways: -

Firstly

By the means of wine. I shall easily believe that quoth Friar John, for when I am well whittled with the juice of the grape, I care for nothing else, so 1 may sleep. When I say, quoth Rondibilis, that wine abateth lust, my meaning is, wine immoderately taken; for by intemperance, proceeding from the excessive drinking of strong liquor, there is brought upon the body of such a swill-down bouser, a chillness in the blood, a slackening in the sinews, a dissipation of the generative seed, a numbness and hebetation of the senses, with a perversive wryness and convulsion of the muscles, all which are great lets and impedimeuts to the act of generation. Hence it is that Bacchus, the god of bibbers, tipplers, and drunkards, is most commonly painted beardless and clad in a woman's habit, as a person altogether effeminate, or like a libbed eunuch. Wine, nevertheless, taken moderately, worketh quite contrary effects, as is implied by the old proverb, which saith, - That Venus taketh cold, when not accompanied by Ceres and Bacchus. * This opinion is of great antiquity as appeareth by the testimony of Diordorus the Sicilian, and confirmed by Pausanias, and it is usually held among the Lampsacians, that Don Priapus was the son of Bacchus and Venus.

* Dr Smollett's translation, Vol. XXXII.

Secondly

The fervency of lust is abated by certain drugs, plants herbs and roots, which make the taker cold, maleficiated, unfit for, and unable to perform the act of generation; as hath often been experimented by the water-lily, Heraclea, Agnus-Castus, willow-twigs, hemp-stalks, woodbine, honeysuckle, tamarisk, chastetree, mandrake, bennet keebugloss, the skin of a hippopotamus, and many other such, which, by convenient doses proportioned to the peccant humour and constitution of the patient, being duly and seasonably received within the body - what by their elementary virtues on the one side, and peculiar properties on the other, do either benumb, mortify and beclumpse with cold, the prolific semence, or scatter and disperse the spirits which ought to have gone along with, and conducted the sperm to the places destined and appointed for its reception, - or lastly, shut up, stop and obstruct the way, passages, and conduits, through which the seed should have expelled, evacuated, and ejected. We have, nevertheless, of those ingredients, which, being of a contrary operation, heat the blood, bind the nerves, unite the spirits, quicken the senses, strengthen the muscles, and thereby rouse up, provoke, excite and enable a man to the vigorous accomplishment of the feat of amorous dalliance.

I have no need of those, quoth Panurge, God be thanked and you, my good master. Howsoever, I pray you, take no exception or offence at these my words; for what I have said was not out of any ill-will I did bear to you, the Lord, he knows.

* Sine Baccho et Cerer friget Venus.

Thirdly

The ardour of lechery is very much subdued and mated by frequent labour and continual toiling. For by painful exercises and laborous working so great a dissolution is brought upon the whole body, that the blood which runneth alongst the channels of the vein thereof for the nourishment and alimentation of each of its members, had neither time, leisure, nor power to afford the seminal resudation or superfluity of the third concoction, which nature most carefully reserves for the conservation of the individual, whose preservation she more needfully regardeth than the propagation of the species and the multiplication of human kind. Whence it is that Diana is said to be chaste, because she is never idle, but always busied about hunting. For the same reason was a camp, or leaguer of old called - Castrum,* as if they would have said - Castum; because the soldiers, wrestlers, runners, throwers of the bar, and other such like athletic champions, as are usually seen in a military circumvallation, do incessantly travail and turmoil, and are in a perpetual stir and agitation.

To this purpose, also, Hippocrates writeth in his book, De Aere, Aqua et Locis:- That in his time there were people in Scythia as impotent as eunuchs in the discharge of a venerean exploit; because that, without any cessation, pause or respite, they were never from off horseback, or otherwise, assidously employed in some troublesome and molesting drudgery.

* "Castrum quasi Castum, Castra," says Isidorus in his Elymologies, Lib. IX., "sunt ubi miles steterit: dicta autem, castra, quasi casta, ed quod ibi cas-iraretur libido." A castle from castrating of lust.