Others offered to the god as many phalli, made of the wood of the willow tree, as they had vanquished men in a single night.

St. Augustine informs us that it was considered by the Roman ladies as a very proper and pious custom to require young brides to seat themselves upon the monstrous and obscene member of Priapus: and Lactantius says, "Shall I speak of that Mutinus, upon the extremity of which brides are accustomed to seat themselves in order that the god may appear to have been the first to receive the sacrifice of their modesty?"*

These facts prove that the worship of Priapus had greatly degenerated with the Romans, since, losing sight altogether of the object typified, they attach themselves to the symbol alone, in which they could see only what was indecent; and hence religion became a pretext for libertinism,†

Respected so long as the Roman manners preserved their pristine simplicity, but degraded ‡ and vilified in proportion as the morals of that people became corrupted, the very sanctuary itself of Priapus failed to protect him from obloquy and ridicule. Christian writers added their indignant invectives to the biting sarcasms of the poets, and the worship of Priapus would have been annihilated had not superstition and the force of habit, that most indestructible of all human affections, come to the rescue. These two powerful levers of mankind triumphed over reason and Christianity, and succeeded, notwithstanding the strenuous and continued efforts of the latter, in maintaining in some degree the worship of that filthy diety; for the Christian priests, while opposing a Poutrance, the superstitions and impure practices already adverted to, did not so do, as regarded the other customs equally repugnant to decency and true religion. Less austere to these, and consulting their own interests, they turned to their profit the ancient worship established by the Romans and strengthened by habit: they appropriated to themselves what they could not destroy, and, in order to attract to their side the votaries of Priapus, they made a Christian of him.

* See S. Augustine, Civ.Dei.,lib. 6, cap. 9. and Lactantius De falsa religione. lib. 1.

†See Plate I., figure 4. This phallus was found at Pompeii over a baker's door.

‡ Thus his statue was placed in orchards as a scare-crow to drive away superstitious thieves, as well as children and birds. Pomarii tutela diligens rubro Priape, furibus minare mutino. - Priapeia Carm. 73.

But besides the Lingham of the Indians, the Phallus of the Greeks, and the Priapus of the Romans, the Cross (T), although generally thought to be exclusively emblematical of eternal life, has also an account of its fancied similarity to the membrum virile, been considered by many as typical of the reproductive powers of nature. It was known as such to the Indians, being as common in their country as in Egypt or in Europe. "Let not the piety of the Catholic Christian," says the Rev. Mr. Maurice, "be offended at the preceding assertion that the Cross was one of the most usual symbols among the hieroglyphics of Egypt and India. Equally honoured in the Gentile and the world, this Christian emblem of universal nature, of that world to whose four corners its diverging radii pointed, decorated the hands of most of the sculptured images in the former country (Egypt), and the latter (India) stamped its form upon the most majestic of the shrines of their deities".

It is well known that the cross was regarded by the ancient Egyptians as the emblem of fruitfulness. Thus the Rev. Mr.

* Ind. Antiq. ii., p, 361.

Maurice describes a statue bearing a kind of cross in its hand as the symbol of fertility, or, in other words, of the procreative and generative powers.* The cross T so common upon Egyptian monuments was known to the Buddhists and to the Lama of Thibet 700 years before Christ. The Lama takes his name from the Lamak, which is an object of profound veneration with his followers: "Cequi est remarquable," says M. Avril, "c'est que le grand pretre des Tartares porte le nom de Lama, qui, en langue Tartare, designe la Croix, et les Bogdoi qui con-quirent la Chine en 1664, et qui sont soumis au Dulai-Lama dans les choses de la religion, ont toujours des croix sur eux, qu'ils appalent lamas."†

The letter Tau T, being the last one of the ancient alphabets, was made to typify, not only the end, boundary, or terminus of districts, but also the generative power of the eternal trans-migratory life, and was used indiscriminately with the Phallus; it was, in fact, the Phallus. ‡ Speaking of this emblem, Payne Knight observes: "One of the most remarkable of those symbols of generation is a cross in the form of the letter T, which thus served as the emblem of creation and generation before the church adopted it as the sign of salvation, a lucky coincidence of ideas which, without doubt, facilitated the reception of it among the faithful." § And again,"The male organs of generation are sometimes represented by signs of the same sort, which might properly be called symbols of symbols. One of the most remarkable of these is the Cross in the form of the letter т, which thus served as the emblem of creation and generation."*

* Ind. Antiq., vol. I., p. 247.

†Voyage dans la Chine par Avril, Liv. iii., p. 194.

‡ Higgins, Anacalypsis, vol, i, p. 269

§ Worship of Priapus, p.

The famous Crux ansata † which may be seen on all the monuments of Egypt is what is alluded to by the Prophet Ezekiel,‡ and is affirmed by the learned L. A. Cro-zius to be nothing else than the triple Phallus mentioned by Plutarch. §