Foreign immigration is of course a large factor in making the population demotic. Throughout the Northern section of the United States the foreign element - including in this term the foreign born and the native whites of foreign or mixed parentage - composes about half of the population. In the South, on the other hand, though the presence of the negro gives every community a demotic character of a peculiar kind, the foreign element is small, usually less than ten per cent; in Texas it is 15.5. The following table shows the five highest and the five lowest proportions in the United States:

Minnesota.....

71.5

North Dakota ..........................

70.6

Wisconsin.....

66.8

New York.....

63.2

New England .......................

59.2

North Carolina ...............

.7

South Carolina ................

1.1

Georgia......

1.6

Mississippi.....

1.6

Alabama......

2.4

- Compiled from Thirteenth Census, Abstract, p. 86.

But besides foreign immigration, there is interstate migration, and the latter is sometimes the larger factor in making a demotic population. Variations in the two, however, run closely together.

The four states with the smallest percentages of their respective populations born in the state of residence, and the four with the largest percentages, are as follows:

Wyoming.....

21.8

Washington ...................

23.0

Nevada .........................

26.4

Montana.....

26.4

North Carolina .............

94.7

South Carolina ...............

94.4

Georgia..........................

90.6

Virginia.....

89.4

- Compiled from Thirteenth Census, Abstract, p. 175.

The states in which there has been the least migration to disturb the genetic character are precisely the ones in which there is a large negro element in the population, with the array of problems which that involves for teachers and social workers of all kinds.

The Indians of the United States have never increased much in number since the discovery of America, and have been decreasing for the past century. As a result of the policy of the government they are mostly segregated in a few localities. Where they exist they present distinct problems, educational and otherwise.

It appears, therefore, that we might recognize four kinds of communities with reference to demotic character: (1) the older Southern states which have many negroes, but few immigrants, either foreign or domestic; (2) the older states of the North which have a large foreign element, but also a native population born in the state where they reside and whose parents were also natives; (3) the North Central states with a large native population born in the states where they reside, though largely of foreign or mixed parentage; and (4) the newer West where only about one fourth of the population were born in the states where they reside.