The most fundamental and enduring forms of the social mind are the moral sentiments. In principle they start in the primary group, are much the same in one country as another, and persist through all time. They have their roots in human nature. But since they are defined by the social mind, they vary superficially according to the conditions of time and place. The uniformity is greatest in the rules which regulate the relations between the sexes and between parents and children. Equally universal, but with more variety, are truthfulness, kindness to neighbors, respect for human life and liberty, loyalty to the state, and regard for property. The last six of the Ten Commandments give a concise statement of the most important ones. The analysis of these sentiments, with the explanation of their origin, belongs to ethics. The frequency with which supernatural or superhuman origins have been ascribed to them is evidence of the keenness of the need for them which was perceived by reformers and lawgivers, and subconsciously by entire peoples. Their use is to conserve the supreme values of life. Civil laws and judicial penalties only enforce on the degenerate or untrained members of society the rules which the social mind prescribes for all and which normal persons obey because they are sharers in the social mind and have respect for it.

A boy in one of the schools of my home town was a fine football player and had been the pride of his class. But one day the teacher caught him cheating in examination. The incident leaked out and lost him the respect of his fellows. He was put off the football team, for they said, "A boy who will cheat in his exams will cheat in his games."

A child's conscience grows out of his social experience, wherein he has been made to realize through the reactions of people upon his expressions that certain actions may be freely performed, while others must be restrained. As he matures, the concrete factors are gradually eliminated and the remaining feeling, reŽnforced by lessons from history, literature, art, and religion, suffices to guide conduct ... he gains a feeling for certain kinds of ideal conduct. . . . Consciousness on the social side is thus a kind of theatre in which our friends and acquaintances, the public in general, and characters derived from literature, history, and art, constitute the audience and pass judgment upon our performances. - O'shea, Social Development and Education, p. 85.

Moral questions, however, are overlaid by those of etiquette, and also by those of religion. These three phases of the social mind are closely intertwined, and often no distinction is made between them: the attitude of the unreflecting person is the same toward all three, and some sociologists use the Latin word mores to designate them. Take the relations of the sexes, again, for example. The Oriental lady must keep her face concealed from all men except her husband, but she does not hesitate to expose her bare feet and ankles even on the street. When an Oriental gentleman, not accustomed to Western ways, meets a Western lady whose face is not veiled, he refrains from looking at her, even when conversing with her. To Occidentals these are mere matters of etiquette, but to the Orientals they are matters of morality or religion, or both. When we travel in the Orient it is dangerous to disregard them even in ignorance.

. . . For example, in the course of ages it became conventional for civilized people to wear clothes which on most occasions cover most of the body. In the course of time this practice became a part of the moral code of society, so that if a person in our Western world goes with as little clothing as a savage, he is looked upon as an immoral person. So also with styles of dress. A new style comes in, like the slit skirt or the V-shaped collar in women's dress to-day. At first it is looked upon as immoral because it violates the conventional. . . . Let the custom of wearing clothes in a certain way become common, and any thought of immorality in connection with it will fade away. The conventional makes the moral in many cases. - Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, p. 229.

A friend of mine taught in a community where most of the people thought dancing to be wrong, although she was not aware of the fact. The people liked her very much and held her in high esteem. One Friday night she went to a dancing party in a neighboring town. The people heard of it and ostracized her from their society. So unpleasant did they make it for her that she gave up her work in that place.