Figure 5, b. (See description, page 61.)
The strength of the back, legs, and forearm are deficient, and the total strength is small for the total development.
In looking at the chart as a whole, the striking points are the shortness of the body as compared with the total height, the great length of limbs, the large and deep chest, the well-developed calves and proportionally small thighs. To these points might be added the smallness of the bones as measured by their girth and diameter. A person familiar with zoology and comparative anatomy, in selecting an animal for speed, would unhesitatingly choose one similarly constituted; for many of the points necessary to the development of speed in animals are equally essential in man. These, in a word, are the qualities possessed by the subject of the chart just described, who, though not a professional runner, has made the fastest time for certain distances that has as yet been recorded. That all the qualifications possessed by the subject must necessarily be possessed in the same degree by all runners who would equal his performances would be an idle statement. One might compensate for great length of limb by a greater development of muscle, or for want of chest-capacity by a large supply of nervous energy, etc. We feel prepared, however, to maintain that relatively long limbs with a short body, full chest, and small bones, will characterize the typical short-distance runner wherever he maybe found. Short races (100, 220, and 440 yds.) are very often won by a few inches,andthe value of an inch or two in a runner's stride is of the greatest importance; for, other qualifications being equal, this man is bound to be first at the goal.
The small girth of the legs of runners is often mystifying. From the girth of a muscle we get a correct idea of its volume or transverse diameters, but learn little of its length and the extent of its contractile fibres. Whereas, it is the length of the muscle, and not the thickness, that is of significance to short-distance runners. Given the physiological fact that a muscle can contract about one-third of its length, it will readily be seen that the longer the muscle the greater will be the movement of the part to which it is attached. To the runner the desired movement is in the elevation of the thigh and the extension and flexion of the leg and foot. An instantaneous photograph of sprint-runners shows that the range in the movement of the limbs is very ex-
Figure 6, a.
Figure 6, a and b. - H------, Yale, '90; age, 18 years, 10 months; weight, 150 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 7.7 inches. Holds the Intercollegiate record for 1 mile in 4 minutes, 36 4/5 seconds, and the College record for two miles in 10 minutes, 7 seconds.
Figure 6, b. (See description on preceding page.) tensive - the stride of a fast walker being from four to six feet, and that of a fast runner from six to eight feet. If the stature is short, it is necessary for the runner to get a greater elevation from the ground at each step in order to maintain a long stride. When this is done a relatively long lower leg is of the greatest advantage. This fact is admirably brought out in the case of Myers, the professional runner. With a height of 5 feet 7 1/2 inches, which is a little below the mean, or fifty per cent class, he has a length of lower leg which corresponds to a man over 5 feet 10 inches in height, a length of thigh usually found in men of 5 feet 9 inches, while the sitting height is the same as that which makes up the stature of men of 5 feet 4 inches.
Figs. 2 and 4 (pp. 53, 57), Chart II., give the physical proportions of two other runners noted for their speed. Fig. 3 (p. 55), with the same chart, represents a walker of some prominence. Many of the characteristics that distinguish the short-distance runner are apparent in this case, but it is difficult to affirm that they would be found in other walkers, as there are not sufficient data at hand to establish any satisfactory conclusions.
Fig. 6. ...................
Chart III., plotted from Figs. 5 and 6.
In Figs. 5, a, b, and 6, a, b, (pp. 61 - 66), Chart III. (p. 68), you will see runners of another type. In neither of these cases do we find so great a relative distance between the height standing and sitting as marked the individuals just considered. In both cases the sitting height is proportionally short, and in one case both the leg and thigh are long for the length of the body. In the other case, however, the thigh is long and the leg is short for the sitting height. It will be noticed that in both figures, as shown by the chart, the thigh is long for the leg. The chest and waist measurements are large when compared with other parts of the body. But the striking characteristic in both cases is the large girth measurement taken below the chest-muscles immediately over the ninth rib. Unfortunately this measurement is not shown in the chart, but the expansion in that region is apparent in both photographs. In the Harvard man (Fig. 5) there is a greater development of the chest-muscles; while the Yale man (Fig. 6) has a larger chest-girth, though the lower border of the pectorals is hardly discernible.
The Harvard man has broad shoulders and large arms, with narrow hips and small thighs; while the Yale man has narrow shoulders and small arms, with broad hips and large thighs. The Harvard man has a very wide chest, with great muscular strength and good lung-capacity; while the Yale man has a very deep chest, with less muscular strength, but greater lung-power. As these men are noted in their respective institutions as great-distance runners, we ought to find some characteristics common to both. All that remains, however, is the length of body and thighs and the great girth of chest and the region just above the ninth rib. To these qualifications may be added the splendid heart and lung power that usually accompanies this peculiar formation of the body. Without this power, great muscular strength in body or limbs cannot be depended upon for long-continued exertions. With a good respiratory and circulatory apparatus, an immense amount of work can be accomplished by comparatively small muscles. The essential requisites of a long-distance runner, then, are a strong heart and capacious lungs in a broad, deep, and mobile chest. The reason for this will be apparent to those who understand the physiology of exercise. To sustain long-continued exertion, latent energy in the muscles used is necessary, and also a ready means of supplying these muscles with an increased amount of oxygen while in action, and of carrying away the carbonic acid that results from the combustion in the tissues. Hence the necessity of breathing faster while running than while walking; and unless this exchange of gases can be carried on with sufficient rapidity, and in sufficient quantities to meet the demands of the organism under these trying circumstances, there soon comes an end to further muscular activity, though the muscles themselves may be far from exhaustion.