The Inner Temple

The Inner Temple.

The Middle Temple

The Middle Temple.

The Tower, From The River

The Tower, From The River.

The White Tower

The White Tower.

The Bell Tower

The Bell Tower.

It is as strong to-day as when its Norman architect pronounced it finished; and we may well believe that it will last indefinitely, since its exterior is from twelve to fifteen feet thick, and its apartments are divided from one another by walls ten feet in thickness, which rise from the foundation to the roof. The subsequent accretions to this sombre pile, known by such names as the Middle Tower, Bloody Tower, Beauchamp Tower, and Bell Tower, all served a purpose once, when this enclosure was for about six hundred years the fortified abode of English royalty. The world contains no sadder memorial of man's inhumanity to man than London Tower. For centuries it was the home of sorrow and despair. The record of the victims of despotic cruelty who have endured imprisonment and suffered death within its walls renders one sick at heart, until he realizes that increasing civilization has at last made such atrocities impossible.

What memories cluster about the old White Tower, which stands with its attendant structures like a dark-browed king surrounded by his vassals! Hence many an English sovereign has gone forth to his coronation, and from its gloomy vault the gallant Wallace was led out to meet a death which was preceded by atrocious torture. Here fratricidal crimes, recalling the barbaric Orient, have been committed, as when the Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV., was put to death; or when the young king, Edward V., and his brother Richard - the Princes of the Tower - were cruelly murdered. In 1244, the Prince of Wales, while attempting to escape by a rope made out of his bedclothes, fell to a frightful death in the deep moat. In many instances the only fault of those who were imprisoned here, or put to death, was that they were of royal blood, and, therefore, possible claimants of the throne. Others were victims of court intrigues, royal jealousy, or kingly lust, such as the wives of Henry VIII., Katherine Howard, a queen of eighteen months, and Anne Boleyn, praying with her last breath for her brutal husband, who on the next day married Jane Seymour. Here was beheaded, after a captivity of eighteen years, the gallant, handsome, intellectual explorer and historian, Sir Walter Raleigh, of whom Prince Henry said, "No man but my father would keep such a bird in such a cage." Bishops and priests have met their doom on Tower Hill for having refused to recognize a sovereign's supremacy. Jews, also, have been tortured in these dungeon vaults until they gave up the last penny of their property. Even Love has numbered here his victims, such as the Duke of Norfolk, who had aspired to the hand of Mary, Queen of Scots; while in a room, still shown to the visitor, died the last lord of Wilton, after eleven years of imprisonment, accused of having wished to marry, without the permission of James I., Lady Arabella Stuart, who herself died in the Tower, hopelessly insane. Here, also, some high-spirited men like Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, have committed suicide; and here an unfortunate illegitimate son of Henry VIII., imprisoned to avoid embarrassing complications, died of a broken heart; while as a soldiers' monument often covers the remains of countless unknown heroes, so we may be assured that those recorded on the page of history are but a handful to the unnamed, unremembered victims who suf-ered agony here without a trial, and passed through death into oblivion, as an abandoned swimmer sinks into the sea.

The Bloody Tower

The Bloody Tower.

The Tower Custodians (The Beef Eaters)

The Tower Custodians (The Beef-Eaters).

The Tower And Tower Bridge

The Tower And Tower Bridge.

Traitor's Tower

Traitor's Tower.