Range. - North America, east of the Plains; breeding from Massachusetts northward, and wintering from the Carolinas and Illinois southward.

This species is one of the most handsomely marked of the family; they can easily be recognized by the red crown and throat (white on the female), each bordered by black, and the yellowish underparts. The members of this genus have been found to be the only ones that are really injurious, and these only to a slight extent, to cultivated trees. This species and the two following are the only real "sapsuckers," a crime that is often attributed to the most useful of the family. Their nesting season is during May and June, they then resorting to the interior of the woods, where they deposit their four to seven glossy eggs on the bottom of holes in trees, generally at quite an elevation from the ground. Size of eggs .85 x .60.

White

White.

Yellow bellied Sapsucker

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.

402a. Red-Naped Sapsucker. Sphyrapicus Varius Nuchalis

Range. - Rocky Mountain region of the United States and southern Canada south to Mexico and west to California.

This variety differs from the last, chiefly in addition of a band of scarlet on the nape in place of the white on the Yellow-bellied species. Coming as it does, midway between the ranges of the preceding species and the following, this variety, with its extension of red on the head and throat, may be regarded somewhat as a connecting link between the two species, but it is perfectly distinct and does not intergrade with either. There appears to be no difference in the nesting habits of the two varieties, except that the present one, according to Bendire, shows a preference to nesting in live aspens. The eggs measure .90 x .65.

402a Red Naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus Varius Nuchal 783