This section is from the book "British Dogs, Their Points, Selection, And Show Preparation", by W. D. Drury. Also available from Amazon: British Dogs: Their Points, Selection And Show Preparation.
There is another variety of these dogs in which the coat is short; the head much resembles that of a raccoon, and the skin on the forehead is slightly wrinkled. In other prick-eared dogs the inside of the ear is protected by hair, but such is not the case with these dogs, the ear being as smooth as though it had been shaven. Several good specimens of this variety have been exhibited in recent years, but one of the first seen on the show-bench was Chinese Puzzle, a bitch sent to the Zoological Gardens by some one who was under the impression that she was a rare wild animal.
The following are the points of the breed as drawn up by the Chow-Chow Club: -
Skull flat and broad, with little stop, well filled out under the eyes.
Moderate in length, and broad from the eyes to the point (not pointed at the end like a fox).
Black, large, and wide (in cream-coloured specimens a pink nose is allowable).
Dark and small (in a blue dog light colour is permissible).
Small, pointed, and carried stiffly erect. They should be placed well forward over the eyes, which gives the dog the peculiar characteristic expression of the breed - namely, a sort of scowl.
Strong and level.
Strong, full, set well on the shoulders, and slightly arched.
Muscular and sloping.
Broad and deep.
Short, straight, and strong.
Curled tightly over the back.
Perfectly straight, of moderate length, and with great bone.
Same as fore legs, muscular, and with hocks well let down.
Small, round, and cat-like, standing well on the toes.
Abundant, dense, straight, rather coarse in texture, with a soft, woolly undercoat.
Whole-coloured black, red, yellow, blue, white, etc., not in patches (the under part of tail and back of thighs frequently of a lighter colour).
That of a lively, compact, short-coupled dog, well-knit in frame, with tail curled well over the back.
From 401b. to 5olb.
Drop ears, red tongue, tail not curled over the back, white spots on the coat, and a red nose, except in yellow or white specimens.
Smooth Chows are judged by the same standard, except that the coat is smooth.
Small breeds of dogs are also to be met with in China, one somewhat resembling our Pugs, but longer in coat, and another, a breed of Toy Spaniels; but as these are fully dealt with elsewhere, there only remains to be mentioned the Crested and Hairless Dogs of the country (Figs, 111 and 112). There can be no doubt that these dogs are the same as the African Sand-dog and the Hairless Dogs of Mexico and Japan. They should be entirely without hair, except in the case of the Crested Dogs, which should have a crest of hair on the top of the head and also a tuft of hair at the end of the tail. In the dogs that have been exhibited as African Sand-dogs this crest appears to be shorter and much harsher than in the Chinese dogs. The skin should be bluish in colour, resembling in this respect the colour of an elephant's hide, although it is frequently mottled, which, however, should not be the case. These Terriers are apple-headed, with large bat ears, and vary in size from about 10 lb. up to 20 lb. or 251b. They are very symmetrical, a quality in which most of the specimens exhibited of late years have been sadly wanting. Care should be taken by an intending purchaser to satisfy himself that he is buying a genuine Hairless Dog, and not a Terrier without hair. Any appearance of tan on the legs and feet would naturally suggest a cross of Black-and-tan Terrier blood. A singular peculiarity in this breed, to which our attention has been called by the eminent veterinary surgeon Mr. A. J. Sewell, is the teeth of these dogs. If the mouth is examined, it will be found to resemble that of a pig. The canine teeth, or tusks, are very much smaller than in other dogs of a similar size, and stand out on each side of the jaw; behind these teeth is a space of about an inch, and then come four molars only, instead of the usual number. These Hairless Dogs naturally feel the cold and have to be kept clothed, which frequently causes considerable irritation to the skin.
Fig. 111. - Chinese Hairless Dog Dr. Jameson.
Fig. 112. - Chinese Crested Dog Hairy King.