The food of whelps before weaning should be confined at first to cow's milk, or, if this is very rich, reduced with a little water. It is better to boil it, and sweeten it with a little fine sugar, as for the human palate. As much of this as the whelps will take may be given them three times a day, or every four hours, if they are a large litter. In the fourth week get a sheep's head, boil it in a quart of water until the meat comes completely to pieces, then carefully take away every particle of bone, and break up the meat into fragments no larger than a small horse-bean; mix all with the broth, thicken this to the consistence of cream with fine wheat flour, boil for a quarter of an hour, then cool and give alternately with the milk. At this time the milk may also be thickened with flour; and as the puppies grow, and the milk of the bitch decreases in quantity, the amount of milk and thickened broth must be increased each day, as well as more frequently given. Some art, founded on experience, is required not to satiate the puppies; but, by carefully increasing the quantity whenever the pups have finished it greedily the last time or two, they will not be overdone.

In no case should the pan containing the food be left in the intervals with the puppies, if they have not cleared it out, as they only become disgusted with it, and the next time refuse to feed. A sheep's head will serve a litter of large-sized puppies two days up to weaning, more or less, according to numbers and age.