Mares are seldom the subjects of vesical calculus. This immunity may be referred in part to the short and straight outward course of the urethra, which favours the free extrusion of solid matter with the urinary discharges.

Occasionally, however, stone is found in the female organ, but not so frequently as is generally stated. Several instances have been brought to the notice of the writer where intestinal calculi ejected from the rectum have been said to have escaped from the bladder in the act of urination. The form, character, and composition of these conections, however, were in each case sufficiently marked to enable him to decide to the contrary. The symptoms of the affection are, for the most part, the same as those described in the horse.

Removal of vesical calculus in the mare is usually a much more simple and less dangerous matter than in the horse.

When the stone is small the operation may in some cases be performed standing. Having made the animal secure with twitch and side-line, the neck of the bladder is carefully dilated and the lithotomy forceps introduced with one hand, while the other, in the rectum, directs the calculus between the blades. Seizure having been effected, and the manipulative precautions already prescribed duly observed, its removal is proceeded with in the manner directed.

Where it is found to be of large size, and the extraction of it by this method impracticable, the animal must be cast and placed under the influence of chloroform. By this means the sphincter vesica will be relaxed and its dilation more effectually accomplished.

Should the stone be too large to be removed entire, it may be crushed and extracted piecemeal in accordance with the rules already laid down.

A thick, pasty, yellow deposit of calcic carbonate is occasionally found in the bladder of the male and female as the result of atony or paralysis of its walls. In both instances it may be readily removed by means of the scoop, aided by forcible injections of tepid water driven through the dilated urethra.

After the whole has been evacuated, an attempt should be made to restore tone to the vesical walls by repeated injection of cold water, supplemented by the administration of nerve tonics and good living.