These are cylindrical pieces of cartilage extending in a forward direction from the lower extremities of the ribs, which they serve to elongate. The first eight are united with the sternum, and are the thicker and stronger. They increase in length from before backward to the eleventh, after which they become shorter.

Pelvis (Superior Aspect).

Fig. 294. - Pelvis (Superior Aspect).

1 Anteroinferior Spine of Ilium. 2 Supero-posterior Spine of Ilium.

3 Obturator Foramen. 4 Lateral Ischiatic Notch. 5 Tuberosity of Ischium. 6 Ischiatic Arch. 7 Symphysis Ischii. 8 Symphysis Pubis.