Since the protein on the one hand and the carbohydrates and fat on the other, serve, in the main, different purposes in the animal economy, it becomes evident that the relative amounts of these nutrients in the food are important. This relation is expressed as the "nutritive ratio," which means the relation of digestible protein to digestible carbohydrates and fat - the fat having been multiplied by 2 1/4 before adding to the carbohydrates, as explained above. The nutritive ratio is found by dividing the carbohydrate, plus 2 1/4 times the fat, by the protein- In the accompanying table, No. II, the sum of the carbohydrates and fat, thus obtained, is given in the third column, which divided by the protein, as given in the second column, gives the second term of the nutritive ratio in the fifth column.

A feeding stuff having a large proportion of carbohydrates and fat as compared to protein is said to have a "wide" nutritive ratio, while one having a small proportion of carbohydrates and fat as compared to protein has a "narrow" ratio. While these terms are relative, it may be said that a ratio greater than 1: 6 is wide, while one less that 1:5 is narrow. The composition of feeding stuffs, that is, the proportion in which the different nutrients occur, is determined by chemical analysis, but the amount of each nutrient that is actually digestible has been determined by careful experiments with living animals. Only the digestible nutrients are considered in the tables given in this publication.

Feeding Standards

The amount of nutrients required, and the proportions in which each should be given, vary with the kind of animal and the purpose for which it is kept, - whether it is growing, being fattened, doing work, or producing milk or wool. Thus an ox at rest requires less food and the various nutrients in different proportions than an ox at work; a cow producing milk requires more food and the nutrients differently balanced than one not producing.

Table I - Feeding Standards A - Per Day And 1,000 Pounds Live Weight

Digestible

Nutritive ratio.

Dry matter.

Protein.

Carbohydrates and fats.

Total.

Lbs.

Lbs.

Lbs.

Lbs.

Oxen at rest in stall......

17.5

07

8.3

9.0

1:119

Wool sheep, coarser breeds.....

20.0

1.2

10.8

12.0

1:9.0

Wool sheep, finer breeds.....

22 5

1.5

12.0

13.5

1:8.0

Oxen moderately worked....

24.0

1.6

12.0

13.0

1:7.5

Oxen heavily worked.....

26.0

24

14.3

16.7

1:6.0

Horses lightly worked....

20.0

15

10.4

11.9

1:6.9

Horses moderately worked...

21 0

1.7

11.8

13.5

1:6.9

Horses heavely worked....

23.0

2.3

14.3

16.6

1:6.2

Milk cows, Wolff's standard....

24.0

2.5

13.4

159

1:5.4

Milk cows, Wisconsin standard......

24.5

2.2

14.9

17.1

1:6.8

Fattening oxen, preliminary period..

27.0

2.5

16 1

18.6

1:6.4

Fattening oxen, main period....

26.0

3.0

16.4

19.4

1:5.5

Fattening oxen, finishing period.....

25.0

2.7

162

189

1:6.0

Fattening sheep, preliminary period.

26.0

3.0

16.3

19.3

1:5.4

Fattening sheep, main period....

25 0

3.5

15.8

19.3

1:4.5

Fattening swine, preliminary period.

36 0

5.0

27.5

32.5

1:5.5

Fattening swine, main period........

31.0

4.0

24.0

28.0

1:6.0

Fattening swine, finishing period...

23.5

2.7

17.5

20.2

1:6.5

Growing cattle:

Age. Months.

Average live weight per head.

2-3

150

lbs.............

22.0

4.0

18.3

22.3

1:4.6

3-6

300

lbs.............

23.4

32

15.8

19.0

1:4.9

6-12

500

lbs.............

24.0

2.5

14.9

17.4

1:6.0

12-18

700

lbs.............

24.0

2.0

13.9

15.9

1:7.0

18-24

850

lbs.............

24.0

1.6

12.7

14.3

1:8.0

Growing sheep:

5-6

56

lbs.............

28.0

3.2

17.4

20.6

1:5.4

6-8

67

lbs.............

25.0

27

14.7

17.4

1:5.4

8-11

75

lbs.............

23.0

2.1

12.5

14.6

1:6.0

11-15

82

lbs.............

22.5

1.7

11.8

135

1:7.0

15-20

85

lbs.............

22.0

1.4

11.1

12.5

1:8.0

Growing fat pigs:

2-3

50

lbs.............

42.0

7.5

30.0

37.5

1:4.0

3-5

100

lbs.............

34.0

5.0

25.0

30.0

1:5.0

5-6

125

lbs............

31.5

4.3

23.7

28.0

1:5.5

6-8

170

lbs.............

27.0

3.4

20.4

23 8

1:6.0

8-12

250

lbs.............

21.0

2.5

16.2

18.7

1:6.5

*The fattening rations are calculated for 1,000 lbs. live weight at the beginning of the fattening.

B - Per day and per head.

Digestible

Nutritive ratio

Dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates and fats

Total

Growing cattle:

Lbs.

Lbs.

Lbs.

Lbs.

2-3

150

lbs.............

3.3

0.6

2.8

3.4

1:4.6

3-6

300

lbs.............

7.0

1.0

4.9

5.9

1:4.9

6-12

500

lbs.............

12.0

1.3

7.5

8.8

1:6.0

12-18

700

lbs.............

16.8

1.4

9.7

11.1

1:7.0

18-24

850

lbs.............

20.4

1.4

11.1

12.5

1:8.0

Growing sheep:

5-6

56

lbs.............

1.6

0.18

0.974

1.154

1:5.4

6-8

67

lbs.............

1 7

0.18

0.981

1.161

1:5.4

8-11

75

lbs.............

1.7

0.16

0.953

1.113

1:6.0

11-15

82

lbs.............

1.8

0.14

0.975

1.115

1:7.0

15-20

85

lbs.............

1.9

0.12

0.955

1.075

1:8.0

Growing fat swine:

2-3

50

lbs.............

2.1

0.38

1.50

1.88

1:4 0

3-5

100

lbs.............

3.4

0.50

2.50

3.00

1:5.0

5-6

125

lbs.............

3.9

0.54

2.96

3.50

1:5.5

6-8

170

lbs..............

4.6

0.58

3.47

4.05

1:6.0

8-12

250

lbs.............

5.2

0.62

4.05

4.67

1:6.5

Various investigators have condensed the results of many experiments and much practical experience into what are called "feeding standards," which attempt to state what is in general, and under average conditions, a good ration for the purpose in view. While these standards cannot be considered as mathematically exact, still large practical experience has demonstrated their great value as aids to feeders.

In Table I, under the title of Feeding Standards, are given the approximate requirements of various classes of animals and under varying conditions. These standards are mostly from German sources, but they have been found very helpful to American feeders. They are presented here as arranged by Armsby, in Circular of Information No. 1, "Computation of Rations for Farm Animals," Pennsylvania State College. The standards are for animals of 1,000 pounds live weight, and may be increased or diminished for larger or smaller animals, though it is probable that the individuality of the animal, its power to assimilate and produce, will have more to do with the varying of the ration than its weight.

It is permissible, perhaps, to depart from the amounts given in the first column under the head of "Dry Matter," more than in any other way. The digestive apparatus of farm animals is elastic and accommodates itself quite readily to the varying bulk of its food. In the last column is given the nutritive ratio, which should, perhaps, be adhered to with some care, trusting to the appetite of the animal (which will be controlled largely by its power of digesting and producing) to indicate the amount of nutrients required. As a rule the most rapid fattening or growth and abundant production are most economical, and these results are best secured by feeding an abundant and well-balanced ration (well up to the limit of the animal's appetite) while the dry matter is not permitted to rise much above the standard.

Table II gives a list of the feeding stuffs in most common use in New York state. Column one is headed "dry matter"; column two, "digestible protein"; column three, digestible carbohydrates + (fat x 2 1/4)"; column four, "total" (which is the sum of two and three); column five, "nutritive ratio." In each of these columns are given the computations of the various food stuffs from one pound up to the amount that is likely to be used in compounding any ration. In the case of the coarse fodders, to save space, the increase is made by more than one pound at a time, but intermediate amounts can readily be obtained from the table if desired. In no case are the calculations for ten pounds of a feeding stuff given, as these can be obtained at once from the figures for one pound, by simply moving the decimal point one place to the right.

These computations are based upon the table of "Average Digestible Nutrients in American Feeding Stuffs" given in Prof. W. A. Henry's recent book, "Feeds and Feeding." The aim has been to carry the computations involved in formulating rations as near completion as possible, and to present the figures in such simple form that no feeder will have difficulty in comparing the ration he is feeding with the standards and correcting it, if necessary, to conform thereto.

Table II. Digestible Nutrients In The Stated Amounts Of The More Common Feeding Stuffs

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutritive ratio

Soiling Fodder

Fodder Corn, 1 lb......

.20

.010

.125

.135

1:12.5

" " 5 lbs.....

1.00

.050

.625

.675

" " 15 " .........

3.00

.150

1.875

2.025

" " 20 " .........

4.00

.200

2.500

2.700

" " 25 " .........

5.00

.250

3.125

3.375

" " 30 " .........

6.00

.300

3.750

4.050

" " 35 " .........

7.00

.350

4.375

4.725

" " 40 " .........

8.00

.400

5.000

5.400

Peas and oats, 1 lb....

.16

.018

.076

.094

1: 4.2

" " " 5 lbs.......

.80

.090

.380

.470

" " " 15 " ......

2.40

.270

1.140

1.410

" " " 20 " ......

3.20

.360

1.520

1.880

" " " 25 " ......

4.00

.450

1.900

2.350

" " " 30 " ......

4.80

.540

2.280

2.820

" " " 35 " ......

5.60

.630

2.660

3.290

" " " 40 " ......

6.40

.720

3.040

3.760

Pears and barley.....

.16

.017

.077

.094

1: 4.5

Practically the same as peas and oats.

Red clover, 1 lb...........

.29

.029

.164

.193

1: 5.6

" " 5 lbs......

1.45

.145

.820

.965

" " 15 " .......

4.35

.435

2.460

2.895

" " 20 " .......

5.80

.580

3.280

3.860

" " 25 " .......

7.25

.725

4.100

4.825

" " 30 " .......

8.70

.870

4.920

5.790

" " 35 " .......

10.15

1.015

5.740

6.755

" " 40 " .......

11.60

1.160

6.560

7.720

Alfalfa, 1 lb...............

.28

.039

.138

.177

1: 3.5

" 5 lbs.......

1.40

.195

.690

.885

" 15 " .......

4.20

.585

2.070

2.655

" 20 " .......

5.60

.780

2.760

3.540

" 25 " .......

7.00

.975

3.450

4.425

" 30 " .......

8.40

1.170

4.140

5.310

" 35 " .......

9.80

1.365

4.830

6.195

" 40 " .......

11.20

1.560

5.520

7.080

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat X 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

SOILING FODDER - Continued

Hungarian grass, 1 lb......

.29

.020

.169

.189

1: 8.4

" " 5 lbs

1.45

.100

.845

.945

" " 15 " ....

4.35

.300

2.535

2.835

" " 20 " ....

5.80

.400

3.380

3.780

" " 25 ".....

7.25

.500

4.225

4.725

" " 30 " ....

8.70

.600

5.070

5.670

" " 35 " ....

10.15

.700

5.915

6.615

" " 40 " ....

11.60

.800

6.760

7.560

Corn silage, 1 lb...........

.21

.009

.129

.138

1:14.3

" " 5 lbs

1.05

.045

.645

.690

" ' " 15 " ........

3.15

.135

1.935

2.070

" " 20 "

4.20

.180

2.580

2.760

" " 25 "

5.25

.225

3.225

3.450

" " 30 "

6.30

.270

3.870

4.140

" " 35 " ........

7.35

.315

4.515

4.830

" " 40 "

8.40

.360

5.160

5.520

" " 45 "

9.45

.405

5.805

6.210

" " 50 "

10.50

.450

6.450

6 900

* Pea-vine silage, 1 lb.......

.27

.025

.141

.166

1: 5.6

" " 5 lbs.....

1.45

.125

.705

.830

" " 15 " .......

4.05

.375

2.115

2.490

" " 20 " ....

5.40

.500

2.820

3.320

" " 25 " .......

6.75

.625

3.525

4.150

" " 30 " . .....

8.10

.750

4.230

4.980

" " 35 " ....

9.45

.875

4.935

5.810

" " 40 "

10.80

.900

5.640

6.640

Roots and Tubers

Potatoes, 1 lb.............

.21

.009

.165

.174

1:18.3

" 5 lbs............

1.05

.045

.825

.870

" 15 lbs............

3.15

.135

2.475

2.610

" 20 lbs............

4.20

.180

3.300

3.480

" 25 lbs............

5.25

.225

4.125

4.350

Beet, mangel, 1 lb........

.09

.011

.056

.067

1: 5.1

" " 5 lbs........

.45

.055

.280

.335

" " 15 "

1.35

.165

.840

1.005

" " 20 "

1.80

.220

1.120

1.340

♦Computed from recent analysis, by G. W. Cavanaugh.

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat X 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

ROOTS and TUBERS-Cont'd.

Beet, mangel, 25 lbs........

2.25

.275

1.400

1.675

" " 30 " ......

2.70

.330

1.680

2.010

Beet, sugar, 1 lb....

.13

.011

.104

.115

1: 9.4

" " 5 lbs..........

.65

.055

.520

.575

" " 15 " ........

1.95

.165

1.560

1.725

" " 20 " ........

2.60

.220

2.080

2.300

" " 25 " ........

3.25

.275

2.600

2.875

" " 30 " ........

3.90

.330

3.120

3.450

Carrot, 1 lb. .....

.11

.008

.082

.090

1:10.3

" 5 lbs........

.55

.040

.410

.450

" 15 " .............

1.65

.120

1.230 .

1.350

" 20 " .............

2.20

.160

1.640

1.800

" 25 " .............

2.75

.200

2.050

2.250

" 30 " .............

3.30

.240

2.460

2.700

Hay and Straw

Timothy, 1 lb. .....

.87

.028

.465

.493

1:16.6

" 3 lbs....

2.61

.084

1.395

1.479

" 5 " .........

4.35

.140

2.325

2.465

" 7 "

6.09

.196

3.255

3.451

" 8 "

6.96

.224

3.720

3.944

" 9 "

7.83

.252

4.185

4.437

" 12 " ............

10.44

.336

5 580

5.916

" 15 " ............

13.05

.420

6.975

7.395

" 18 "

15.66

.504

8.370

8.874

" 20 "

17.40

.560

9.300

9.860

Mixed grasses and clover,

1 lb....................

.87

.062

.460

.522

1: 7.4

3 lbs...................

2.61

.186

1.381

1.566

5 " ..................

4.35

.310

2.300

2.610

7 " ..................

6.09

.434

3.220

3.654

8 " ..................

6.96

.496

3.680

4.176

9 " ..................

7.83

.558

4.140

4.698

12 " ..................

10.44

.744

5.520 .

6.264

15 " ..................

13 05

.93ft

6.900

7.830

18 " ..................

15.96

1.116

8.280

9.393

20 " ..................

17.40

1.240

9.200

10.440

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat X 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

HAY and STRAW - Continued.

Hungarian hay, 1 lb.....

.92

.045

.546

.591

1:12.1

" " 3 lbs....

2.76

.135

1.638

1.773

" " 5 "....

4.60

.225

2.730

2.955

" " 7 "....

6.44

.315

3.822

4.137

" " 8 "....

7.36

.360

4.368

4.728

" " 9 "....

8.28

.405

4.914

5.319

" " 12 "....

11.04

.540

6.552

7.092

Red clover hay, 1 lb....

.85

.068

.396

.464

1: 5.8

" " " 3 lbs.....

2.55

.204

1.188

1.392

" " " 5 "

4.25

.340

1.980

2.320

" " " 7 "

5.95

.476

2.772

3.248

" " " 8 "

6.80

.544

3.168

3.712

" " " 9 "

7.65

.612

3.564

4.176

" " " 12 "

10.20

.816

4.752

5.568

" " " 15 "

12.75

1.020

5.940

6.960

" " " 18 "

15.30

1.224

7.128

8.352

" " " 20 "

17.00

1.360

7.920

9.280

Alfafa hay, 1 lb.....

.92

.110

.423

.533

1: 3.8

" " 3 lbs....

2.76

.330

1.269

1.599

" " 5 "

4.60

.550

2.115

2.665

" " 7 "

6.44

.770

2.961

3.731

" " 8 "

7.36

.880

3.384

4.264

" " 9 "

8.28

.990

3.807

4.797

" " 12 "

11.04

1.320

5.076

6.396

" " 15 "

12.80

1.650

6.345

7.995

" " 18 "

16.56

1.980

7.614

9.594

" " 20 "

18.40

2.200

8.460

10.660

Corn fodder, 1 lb..........

.58

.025

.373

.398

1:14.9

" 5 lbs....

2.90

.125

1.865

1.990

" 8 "....

4.64

.200

2.984

3.184

" 12 "....

6.96

.300

4.476

4.776

" 15 "

8.70

.375

5.595

5.970

" 18 "

10.44

.450

6.714

7.164

" 20"

11.60

.500

7.460

7.960

Corn stover, 1 lb

.60

.017

.340

.357

1:19.9

" 5 lbs.........

3.00

.085

1.720

1.805

" 8 ".........

4.80

.136

2.720

2.856

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates -f (fat X 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

HAY and STRAW - Continued.

Corn stover, 12 lbs.............

7.20

.204

4.080

4.284

" 15 "...........

9.00

.255

5.160

5.415

" 18 "..........

10.80

.306

6.120

6.426

" 20 "..........

12.00

.340

6.880

7.220

Pea-vine straw, 1 lb......

.86

.043

.341

.384

1: 7.9

" " 3 lbs.....

2.58

.129

1.023

1.152

" " 5 "

4.30

.215

1.705

1.920

" " 8 "

6.88

.344

2.728

3.072

" " 12 "

10.32

.516

4.092

4.608

" " 15 "

12.90

.645

5.115

5.760

*Bean straw, 1 lb.....

.95

.036

.397

.433

1:11

" " 2 lbs.....

1.90

.072

.794

.866

" " 3 "............

2.85

.108

1.191

1.299

" " 4 "............

3.80

.144

1.588

1.732

" " 5 "............

4.75

.180

1.985

2.165

" " 7 "............

6.65

.252

2.779

3.031

" " 9 "............

8.55

.324

3.573

3.897

" " 12 "............

11.40

.432

4.764

5.196

Wheat straw, 1 lb.........

.90

.004

.372

.376

1:93

" 3 lbs.....

2.70

.012

1.016

1.128

" 5 "

4.50

.020

1.860

1.880

" 8 "

7.20

.032

2.976

3.008

" 12 "

10.80

.048

4.064

4.512

" 15 "

13.50

.060

5.580

5.640

Oat straw, 1 lb............

.91

.012

.404

.416

1:33.6

" 3 lbs...........

2.73

.036

1.212

1.248

" 5 " ...........

4.55

.060

2.020

2.080

" 8 " ...........

7.28

.096

3.232

3.328

" 12 " ...........

10.92

.144

4.848

4.992

" 15 "...........

13.65

.180

6.060

6.240

Grain

Corn (av.), 1 lb..............

.89

.079

.764

.843

1: 9.7

" 2 lbs....

1.78

.158

1.528

1.686

" 3 ".........

2.67

.237

2.292

2.529

" 4 ".........

3.56

.316

3.056

3.372

*Computed from recent analysis by G. W. Cavanaugh.

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

GRAIN - Continued.

Corn (av.), 5 lbs...

4.45

.395

3.820

4.215

" 6 " ..........

5.34

.474

4.584

5.058

" 7 " ..........

6.23

.553

5.348

5.901

" 8 " ..........

7.12

.632

6.112

6.744

" 9 " ..........

8.01

.711

6.876

7.587

Wheat, 1 lb...............

.90

.102

.730

.832

1: 7.2

" 2 lbs....

1.80

.204

1.460

1.664

" 3 "............

2.70

.306

2.190

2.496

" 4 "............

3.60

.408

2.920

3.328

" 5 " .............

4.50

.510

3.650

4.160

" 6 " .............

5.40

.612

4.380

4.992

Rye, 1 lb..................

.88

.099

.700

.799

1: 7.1

" 2 lbs.................

1.76

.198

1.400

1.598

" 3 " ................

2.64

.297

2.100

2.397

" 4 "............

3.52

.396

2.800

3.196

" 5 "............

4.40

.495

3.500

3.995

" 6 "............

5.28

.594

4.200

4.794

Barley, 1 lb....

.89

.087

.692

.779

1: 7.9

" 2 lbs..........

1.78

.174

1.384

1.558

" 3 ".................

2.67

.261

2.076

2.337

" 4 ".................

3.56

.348

2.768

3.116

" 5 ".................

4.45

.435

3.460

3.895

" 6 ".................

5.34

.522

4.152

4.674

Oats, 1 lb.................

.89

.092

.568

.660

1: 6.2

" 2 lbs................

1.78

.184

1.136

1.320

" 3 "................

2.67

.276

1.704

1.980

" 4 "................

3.56

.368

2.272

2.640

" 5 "................

4.45

.460

2.840

3.300

" 6 "................

5.34

.552

3.408

3.960

" 7 " ................

6.23

.644

3.976

4.620

" 8 "................

7.12

.736

4 544

5.280

" 9 "................

8.01

.828

5.112

5.940

" 12 "................

10.68

1.104

6.816

7.920

" 15 " ................

13.35

1.380

8.520

9.900

Buck wheat, 1 lb......

.87

.077

.533

.610

1: 6.9

" 2 lbs.....

1.74

.154

1.066

1 220

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

GRAIN - Continued.

Buckwheat, 3 lbs......

2.61

.231

1.599

1.830

" 4 ".................

3.48

.308

2.132

2.440

" 5"...............

4.35

.385

2 665

3.050

" 6"...............

5.22

.462

3.198

3.660

" 7"...............

6.09

.539

3.731

4.270

" 8"...............

6.96

.616

4.264

4.880

" 9"...............

7.83

.693

4.797

5.490

Peas, 1 lb. ...................

.90

.168

.534

.702

1: 3.2

" 2 lbs..............

1.80

.336

1.068

1.404

" 3 "

2.70

.504

1.602

2.106

" 4 "

3.60

.672

2.136

2.808

" 5 "

4.50

.840

2.670

3.510

" 6 "

5.40

1.008

3.204

4.212

" 7 "

6.30

1.176

3.738

4.914

" 8 "

7.20

1.344

4.272

5.616

" 9 "

8.10

1.512

4.806

6.318

Mill Products

Corn and cob meal, 1 lb.......

.85

.044

.665

.709

1:151

" " 2 lbs.......

1.70

.088

1.330

1.418

" " 3 "....

2.55

.132

1.995

2.127

" " 4 "....

3.40

.176

2.660

2.836

" " 5 "....

4.25

.220

3.325

3.545

" " 6 "....

5.10

.264

3.990

4.254

" " 7 "....

5.95

.308

4.655

4.963

" " 8 "....

6.80

.352

5.320

5.672

" " 9 "....

7.65

.396

5.985

6.381

" " 12 "....

10.20

.528

7.980

8.508

Wheat bran, 1 lb.....

.88

.122

.453

.575

1: 3.7

" " 2 lbs......

1.76

.244

.906

1.150

" " 3 "............

2.64

.366

1.359

1.725

" " 4 "............

3.52

.488

1.812

2.300

" " 5 "............

4.40

.610

2.265

2.875

" " 6 "............

5.28

.732

2.718

3.450

" " 7 "............

6.16

.854

3.171

4.025

" " 8 "............

7.04

.976

3.624

4.600

" " 9 "............

7.92

1.098

4.077

5.175

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

MILL PRODUCTS - Continued.

Wheat middlings, 1 lb.....

.88

.128

.607

.735

1: 4.7

" " 2 lbs.....

1.76

.256

1.214

1.470

" " 3 "............

2.64

.384

1.821

2.205

" " 4 "............

3.52

.512

2.428

2.940

" " 5 "............

4.40

.640

3.035

3.675

" " 6 "............

5.28

.768

3.642

4.410

" " 7 "............

6.16

.896

4.249

5.145

" " 8 "............

7.04

1.024

4.856

5.880

" " 9 "............

7.92

1.152

5.463

6.615

Dark feeding flour, 1 lb...

.90

.135

.658

.793

1: 4.9

" " 2 lbs..

1.80

.270

1.316

1.586

" " 3 "....

2.70

.405

1.974

2.379

" " 4 "....

3.60

.540

2.632

3.172

" " 5 "....

4.50

.675

3.290

3.965

" " 6 "....

5.40

.810

3.948

4.758

" " 7 "....

6.30

.945

4.606

5.551

" " 8 "....

7.20

1.080

5.264

6.344

" " 9 "....

8.10

1.215

5.922

7.137

Low-grade flour, 1 lb......

.88

.082

.647

.729

1: 7.9

" " " 2 lbs.....

1.76

.164

1.294

1.458

" " " 3 " .....

2.64

.246

1.941

2.187

" " " 4 " .....

3.52

.328

2.588

2.916

" " " 5 " .....

4.40

.410

3.235

3.645

" " " 6 " .....

5.28

.492

3.882

4.374

" " " 7 " .....

6.16

.574

4.529

5.103

" " " 8 " .....

7.04

.656

5.176

5.832

" " " 9 " .....

7.92

.738

5.823

6.561

Rye bran, 1 lb.............

.88

.115

.548

.663

1: 4.8

" " 2 lbs.....

1.76

.230

1.096

1.326

" " 3 "...........

2.64

.345

1.644

1.989

" " 4 "...........

3.52

.460

2.192

2.652

" " 5 "...........

4.40

.575

2.740

3.315

" " 6 "...........

5.28

.690

3.288

3.978

" " 7 "...........

6.16

.805

3.836

4.641

" " 8 "...........

7.04

.920

4.384

5.304

" " 9 "...........

7.92

1.035

4.952

5.967

Buckwheat bran, 1 lb......

.90

.074

.347

.421

1: 4.7

" " 2 lbs.....

1.80

.148

.694

.842

" " 3 "......

2.70

.222

1.041

1.263

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

MILL PRODUCTS-Continued.

Buckwheat bran, 4 lbs.....

3.60

.296

1.388

1.684

" " 5 " .......

4.50

.370

1.735

2.105

" " 6 " .......

5.40

.444

2.082

2.526

" " 7 " .......

6.30

.518

2.429

2.847

" " 8 " .......

7.20

.592

2.776

3.368

" " 9 " .......

8.10

.666

3.123

3.789

Buckwheat middlings, 1 lb..

.87

.220

.456

.676

1: 2.1

" " 2 lbs.....

1.74

.440

.912

1.352

" " 3 "..

2.61

.660

1.368

2.028

" " 4 "..

3.48

.880

1.824

2.704

" " 5 "..

4.35

1.100

2.280

3.380

" " 6 "..

5.22

1.320

2.736

4.056

" " 7 "..

6.09

1.540

3.192

4.732

" " 8 "..

6.96

1.760

3.648

5.408

" " 9 "..

7.83

1.980

4.104

6.084

By-Products

Malt sprouts, 1 lb.....

.90

.186

.409

.595

1: 2.2

" " 2 lbs.....

1.80

.372

.818

1.190

" " 3 " .............

2.70

.558

1.227

1.785

" " 4 " .............

3.60

.744

1.636

2.380

" " 5 " .............

4.50

.930

2.045

2.975

" " 6 " .............

5.40

1.116

2.454

3.570

" " 7 " .............

6.30

1.302

2.863

4.165

" " 8 " .............

7.20

1.488

3.272

4.760

" " 9 " .............

8.10

1.674

3.681

5.355

Distillers' dried grains,

Bile's xxxx, 1 lb....

.92

.248

.552

.800

1: 2.2

" 2 lbs......

1.84

.496

1.104

1.600

" 3 "..............

2.76

.744

1.656

2.400

" 4 "..............

3.68

.992

2.208

3.200

" 5 "..............

4.60

1.240

2.760

4.000

" 6 "..............

5.52

1.488

3.312

4.800

" 7 "..............

6.44

1.736

3.864

5.600

" 8 "..............

7.36

1.984

4.416

6.400

Brewer's grain, wet, 1 lb...

.24

.039

.125

.164

1: 3.2

" " 2 lbs.

.48

.078

.250

.328

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat X 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

BY-PRODUCTS - Continued.

Brewer's grain, wet, 3 lbs.

.72

.117

.375

.492

" " 4 " ..

.96

.156

.500

.656

" " 5 " ..

1.20

.195

.625

.820

" " 6 " ..

1.44

.234

.750

.984

" " 7 " ..

1.68

.273

.875

1.148

" " 8 " ..

1.92

.312

1.000

1.312

" " 9 " ..

2.16

.351

1.125

1.476

" " 11 " ..

2.64

.429

1.375

1.804

" " 12 " ..

2.88

.468

1.500

1.968

" " 15 " ..

3.60

.585

1.875

2.460

Brewer's grains, dry, 1 lb..

.92

.157

.478

.635

1: 3

" " 2 lbs...

1.84

.314

.956

1.270

" " 3 " ....

2.76

.471

1.434

1.905

" " 4 " ....

3.68

.628

1.912

2.540

" " 5 " ....

4.60

.785

2.390

3.175

" " 6 " ....

5.52

.942

2.868

3.810

" " 7 " ....

6.44

1.099

3.346

4.445

" " 8 " ....

7.36

1.256

3.824

5.080

" " 9 " ....

8.28

1.413

4.302

5.715

Buffalo gluten feed, 1 lb...

.90

.232

.699

.931

1: 3

" " " 2 lbs...

1.80

.464

1.398

1.862

" " " 3 " ....

2.70

.696

2.097

2.793

" " " 4 " ....

3.60

.928

2.796

3.724

" " " 5 " ....

4.50

1.160

3.495

4.655

" " " 6 " ....

5.40

1.392

4.194

5.586

" " " 7 " ....

6.30

1.624

4.893

6.517

" " " 8 " ....

7.20

1.856

5.592

7.448

Chicago gluten meal, 1 lb..

.88

.322

.468

.790

1. 1.5

" " " 2 lbs...

1.76

.644

.936

1.580

" " " 3 "

2.64

.966

1.404

2.370

" " " 4 "

3.52

1.288

1.872

3.160

" " " 5 "

4.40

1.610

2.340

3.950

" " " 6 "

5.28

1.932

2.808

4.740

" " " 7 "

6.16

2.254

3.276

5.530

" " " 8 "

7.04

2.576

3.744

6.320

Hominy chop, 1 lb.....

.89

.075

.705

.780

1: 9.4

" " 2 lbs.....

1.78

.150

1.410

1.560

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat X 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

BY-PRODUCTS-Continued.

Hominy chop, 3 lbs......

2.67

.225

2.115

2.340

" " 4 " ........

3.56

.300

2.820

3.120

" " 5 " ........

4.45

.375

3.525

3.900

" " 6 " ........

5.34

.450

4.230

4.680

" " 7 " ........

6.23

.525

4.935

5.460

" " 8 " ........

7.12

.600

5.640

6.240

" " 9 " ........

8.01

.675

6.345

7.020

Linseed meal

(old process), 1 lb.....

.91

.293

.485

.778

1: 1.7

" " 2 lbs......

1.82

.586

.970

1.556

" " 3 "........

2.73

.879

1.455

2.334

" " 4 "........

3.64

1.172

1.940

3.112

" " 5 "........

4.55

1.465

2.425

3.890

" " 6 "........

5.46

1.758

2.910

4 668

" " 7 "........

6.37

2.051

3.395

5.446

Linseed meal

(new process). 1 lb......

.90

.282

.464

.746

1: 1.6

" " 2 lbs.....

1.80

.564

.928

1.492

" " 3 " .......

2.70

.846

1.392

2.238

" " 4 " .......

3.60

1.128

1.856

2.984

" " 5 " .......

4.50

1.410

2.320

3.730

" " 6 " .......

5.40

1.692

2.784

4.476

" " 7 " .......

6.30

1.974

3.248

5.232

Cotton-seed meal, 1 lb.....

.92

.372

.444

.816

1: 1.2

" " 2 lbs.....

1.84

.744

.888

1.632

" " 3 "..........

2.76

1.116

1.332

2 448

" " 4 "..........

3.68

1.488

1.776

3.264

" " 5 "..........

4.60

1.860

2.220

4.080

" " 6 "..........

5.52

2.232

2.664

4.896

" " 7 "..........

6.44

2.604

3.008

5.712

" " 8 "..........

7.36

2.976

3.552

6.528

" " 9 "..........

8.28

3.348

3.996

7.344

Miscellaneous

Cabbage, 1 lb.............

.15

.018

.091

.109

1: 5.1

" 5 lbs.....

.75

.090

.455

.545

" 15 " .....

2.25

.270

1.365

1.635

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates 4-(fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

MISCELLANEOUS - Continued.

Cabbage, 20 lbs...........

3.00

.360

1.820

2.180

" 25 " ...........

3.75

.450

2.275

2.725

" 30 " ...........

4.50

.540

2.730

3.270

" 30 " ...........

5.25

.630

3.185

3.815

" 40 " ...........

G.00

.720

3.640

4.360

Sugar beet leaves, 1 lb___

.12

.017

.051

.068

1: 3

" " 5 lbs........

.60

.085

.255

.340

" " 15 " .......

1.80

.255

.765

1.020

" " 20 " .......

2.40

.340

1.020

1.360

" " 25 " .......

3.00

.425

1.275

1.700

" " 30 " .......

3.60

.510

1.530

2.040

" " 35 " .......

4.20

.595

1.785

2.380

" " 40 " .......

4.80

.680

2.040

2.720

Sugar beat pulp, 1 lb......

.10

.006

.073

.079

1:12

" " 5 lbs......

.50

.030

.365

.395

" " 15 " ...........

1.50

.090

1.095

1.185

" " 20 " ...........

2.00

.120

1.460

1.580

" " 25 " ...........

2.50

.150

1.825

1.975

" " 30 " ...........

3.00

1.80

2.190

2.370

" " 35 " ...........

3.50

.210

2.555

2.765

" " 40 " ...........

4.00

.240

2.920

2.160

Beat molasses, 1 lb........

.79

.091

.595

.686

1: 6.5

" " 2 lbs......

1.58

.182

1.190

1.372

" " 3 "..............

2.37

.273

1.785

2.058

" " 4 ".............

3.16

.364

2.380

2.744

" " 5 ".............

3.95

.455

2.975

3.430

" " 6 ".............

4.74

.546

3.570

4.116

" " 7 ".............

5.53

.637

4.165

4.802

" " 8 ".............

6.32

.728

4.760

5.488

" " 9 ".............

7.11

.819

5.355

6.174

Apples, 1 lb.....

.19

.007

.188

.195

1:26.8

" 5 lbs......

.95

.035

.940

.975

" 15 "..........

2.85

.105

2.820

2.925

" 20 "..........

3.90

.140

3.760

3.900

" 25 "..........

4.75

.175

4.700

4.875

" 30 "..........

5.70

.210

5.640

5.850

Kind and amount of feed

Lbs. of digestible nutrients

Total dry matter

Protein

Carbohydrates + (fat x 2.25)

Total

Nutr'tive ratio

MISCELLANEOUS - Continued.

Apple pomace, 1 lb......

.233

.011

.164

.175

1:14.9

" " 5 lbs.......

1.165

.055

.820

.875

" " 15 " ........

3.495

.165

2.460

2.625

" " 20 " ........

4.660

.220

3.280

3.500

" " 25 " ........

5.825

.275

4.100

4.375

" " 30 " ........

6.990

.330

4.920

5.250

" " 35 " ........

8.155

.385

5.740

6.125

" " 40 " ........

9.320

.440

6.560

7.000

Skim milk, gravity, 1 lb...

.096

.031

.065

.006

1: 2.1

" " 5 lbs.....

.480

.155

.325

.480

" " 8 ".........

.768

.248

.520

.768

" " 12 ".........

1.152

.372

.780

1.152

" " 15 ".........

1.440

.465

.975

1.440

" " 20 ".........

1.920

.620

1.300

1.920

" " 25 ".........

2.400

.775

1.625

2.400

" " 30 ".........

2.880

.930

1.950

2.880

Skim milk, centrifugal,

1 lb....................

.094

.029

.059

.088

1: 2

5 lbs.................

.470

.145

.295

.440

8 " ...................

.752

.232

.472

.704

12 " ...................

1.128

.348

.708

1.056

15 " ...................

1.410

.435

.885

1:320

20 " ...................

1.880

.580

1.180

1.760

25 " ...................

2.350

.725

1.475

2.200

30 " ...................

2.820

.870

1.770

2.620

Buttermilk, 1 lb.....

.10

.039

.065

.104

1: 1.7

" 5 lbs.....

.50

.195

.325

.520

" 8 " ...........

.80

.312

.520

.832

" 12 " ...........

1.20

.468

.780

1.248

" 15 " ...........

1.50

.585

.975

1.560

" 20 " ...........

2.00

.780

1.300

2.080

" 25 " ...........

2.50

.975

1.625

2.600

" 30 " ...........

3.00

1.170

1.950

3.120

*From Bulletin of Information No. 1, Pennsylvania State College.

To illustrate how these tables may be used, we will examine a system of feeding which the writer observed the present season in a certain section of the state, and was told was quite extensively practiced. The section referred to is devoted almost exclusively to dairying, and timothy hay constitutes the greater portion of the coarse fodder during the feeding season. Oats are about the only grain grown. Corn is purchased and ground with the oats, in about equal weights, to make "chop," which is fed with the hay. The cows will not greatly vary from 1,000 pounds live weight. While these cows are in full flow of milk in the spring before pasture is ready, they are fed about 20 pounds of hay and 8 pounds of chop per day. Turning to the tables, we find that 20 pounds of hay, 4 pounds of oats and 4 pounds of corn contain digestible nutrients as follows: -

Dry matter

Protein

C. H. and Fat

Total

Nutritive Ratio

20 lbs. hay...............

17.40

.560

9.300

9.860

4 lbs oats...............

3.56

.368

2.772

2.640

4 lbs. corn............

3.56

.316

3.056

3.372

Total...............

24.52

1.244

14.628

15.872

1:11.7

Wolff's Standard.........

24.00

2.5

13.4

15.9

1: 5.4

Upon comparison of the nutrients furnished by this ration with Wolff's standard as given in Table I, it is discovered that while the dry matter and total nutrients are not far out of the way, the protein is much too small, the carbohydrates and fat are somewhat too great, while the nutritive ratio is far too wide.

This result might readily have been foreseen had we paused a moment to note the nutritive ratio of each of the three foods entering into the ration. They are, timothy hay, 1: 16.6; oats, 1:6.2; corn, 1:9.7. Neither of them is as narrow as the standard, and it is impossible to combine them into a ration that is approximately balanced. As corn is a purchased product, the natural suggestion is that the corn should be replaced by some food having a high proportion of protein, or, in other words, a very narrow nutritive ratio. Consulting the table, it is found that among such are linseed meal, cotton-seed meal, gluten feed, malt sprouts, buckwheat, middlings, etc. As buckwheat middlings is a New York State product and can readily be put in stock during the winter, it is suggested to substitute it for the corn in the ration. Again taking the figures from the table, we have: -

Dry matter

Protein

C. H. and Fat

Total

Nutritive Ratio

20 lbs. timothy hay.........

17.40

.560

9.300

9.860

4 lbs. oats........

3.56

.368

2.272

2.640

4 lbs. buckwheat mid's..

3.48

.880

1.824

2.704

Total...............

24.44

1.808

13.396

15.204

1:7.4

While this ration is much improved over the previous one and will produce a much freer flow of milk, it is still too wide to produce the best results.

If the timothy hay is reduced two pounds, and two pounds of cotton-seed meal put in its place, we get: -

Dry matter

Protein

C. H. and Fat

Total

Nutritive Ratio

18 lbs. timothy hay.........

15.66

.504

8.370

8.874

4 lbs. oats.............

3.56

.368

2.272

2.640

4 lbs. buckwheat raid's..

3.48

.880

1.824

2.704

2 lbs. cottonseed meal ..

1.84

.744

.888

1.632

Total...............

24.54

2.496

13.354

15.850

1:5.3

This ration corresponds very closely to the standard; and while the purchase of the cotton-seed meal will add somewhat to the expense, still it is the experience of careful feeders that the increased production will abundantly pay for thus securing a proper balance to the ration.

The same result may be obtained by using other feeding stuffs having a narrow nutritive ratio. The question is likely to be raised, which of the various feeding stuffs offered in the market may most economically be used in supplementing the homegrown foods to produce a balanced ration? This question is best answered by formulating properly balanced rations containing each of the foods under consideration, and by assigning the actual market value per pound to each of the constituents of the ration, its cost is readily ascertained and the cheapest may be selected:

Elements Of Fertility In 1,000 Pounds

Water

Ash

Nitrogen

Phosphoric acid

Potash

Estimated value per ton

Alfalfa (green)..............

760

22.1

6.2

1.5

3.5

$2 18

Alfalfa hay..................

153

80.2

17.6

6.1

17.9

7 08

Apple pomace........

740

8.2

1.7

.1

.3

26

Barley..............

143

24.8

13.9

7.9

4.8

5 04

Barley and peas (green).

755

16.7

2.7

1.8

5.05

1 38

Bean straw...........

53

69.

11.4

2.1

18.4

5 04

Beets (sugar)...............

820

8.1

1.7

.8

3.7

88

Brewer's grains, dry.....

95

47.2

25.1

16.1

2.

8 70

Brewer's grains, wet............

762

12.4

6.2

4.2

.5

2 16

Buckwheat............

141

27.7

12.3

6.9

3.

4 34

Buckwheat bran................

156

28.

11.8

4.2

12.7

4 82

Buckwheat mid., coarse .

120

47.

35.2

12.3

11.4

11 98

Cabbage.................

856

14.1

2.8

2.2

5.2

1 48

Carrots...............

870

10.

1.2

.9

2.6

65

Corn fodder with ears ...

92

37.4

4.

2.9

14.

2 64

Corn silage (green)

779

1.4

1.1

3.7

82

Corn stover................

150

45.3

2.7

3.8

16.4

2 57

Cotton-seed meal..............

88

70.5

59.5

30.4

15.8

20 82

Gluten meal.............

86

7.3

41.2

3.3

.5

11 18

Hominy feed............

89

22.1

12.

9.8

4.9

4 68

Hungarian grass (green).

870

12.

3.2

.7

4.7

1 38

Indian corn................

130

14.8

12.6

5.7

3.7

4 34

Linseed meal, new P ......

110

62.1

45.1

17.4

13.4

15 40

Linseed meal, old P.....

89

61.

46.8

16.6

13.7

15 83

Maize fodder (green)......

828

14.7

1.6

1.1

3.9

90

Malt sprouts.......

120

75.1

29.7

17.4

19.9

11 68

Mangel-wurzel.......

873

12.2

1.7

.9

3.8

90

Mixed hay............

137

64.5

9.9

4.1

13.2

4 33

Oats.....................

133

31.

14.7

6.9

4.8

5 16

Oat straw..............

145

57.

1.9

2.8

17.7

2 38

Peas...............

140

28.1

26.8

8.4

10.1

9 10

Peas and oats (green) ..

467

16.05

2.8

1.65

6.25

1 50

Pea vine straw............

136

66.

6.8

3.5

10.2

3 14

Red clover (green).......

790

16.

4.6

1.5

4.8

1 86

Red clover hay............

170

62.1

10.8

5.5

18.7

5 20

Rye......................

134

19.8

15.8

8.6

5.8

5 72

Rye bran, .................

125

46.

18.4

22.8

14.

8 46

Skim milk, centrifugal...

906

7.4

4.6

2.1

2.

1 65

Timothy hay..............

880

23.9

2.7

1.5

6.2

1 25

Turnips...............

898

5.8

.96

.2

.4

32

Wheat................

143

41.1

4.4

5.

14.1

2 95

Wheat bran.................

905

8.

1.8

1.

3.9

94

Wheat...................

134

17.1

16.3

8.7

5.5

5 84

Wheat bran..............

132

58.

19.5

26.9

15.2

9 24

Wheat middlings.............

126

27.

20.4

13.5

7.4

7 60

Wheat straw.......

136

53.

.64

2.2

6.3

94

See "Fertility of the Land."