Vomerine teeth confined to the anterior extremity; dorsal midway between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal: anal commencing beyond the tip of the reclined dorsal: axillary scale nearly half the length of the ventrals.

S. Umbla, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 511. Block, Ichth. pl. 101. S. alpinus, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 61. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 104. Flem. Brit. An. p. 180. Charr, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. ii. p. 305. pl. 60. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 407. pl. 71.


From twelve to fourteen inches.


{Form). Elongated; the line of the back nearly straight; profile sloping gently downwards from the nape: greatest depth about one-fifth of the entire length: head contained five times and a half in the same: snout short and somewhat obtuse: jaws nearly equal, except in the spawning season, when the lower one becomes longest: teeth small and sharp; those on the vomer confined to the anterior extremity: eyes moderate; their diameter rather less than one-fourth the length of the head; the distance between them equalling twice their diameter: gill-cover produced behind into a rounded lobe; the basal margin sloping very obliquely upwards: lateral line arising at the upper angle of the opercle, at first slightly descending, but afterwards nearly straight, its course being a little above the middle; scales small: dorsal a little before the middle of the entire length; the distance from the first ray to the end of the snout, when measured behind, not reaching beyond the base of the caudal; of a somewhat triangular form, the posterior rays being not more than half the length of the anterior ones; fifth ray longest, equalling a little more than half the depth of the body: adipose so placed, that two-thirds of the distance between the dorsal and caudal lie before it, one-third behind it: anal commencing considerably beyond a vertical line from the tip of the reclined dorsal: pectorals just three-fourths the length of the head: ventrals beneath the middle of the dorsal; in their axillae a long narrow pointed scale, nearly half their own length:

B. 10 or 11; D. 14; A. 13; C, 19, and some short ones; P. 11; V. 9.

* Catalogue of the Animals of Cumberland, p. 31.

{Colours). Back, and upper part of the sides, bluish gray, tinged with olivaceous; flanks and belly flesh-colour: above the lateral line spotted with white; beneath the same, spots more obscure: dorsal, anal, and caudal, dusky, the latter darkest; pectorals and ventrals dark red. In the spawning season, the flanks and abdomen are bright crimson-red; the whole of the sides, above and below the lateral line, spotted with deeper red; the anal, pectorals, and ventrals, are also deep red, the first rays of the anal and ventrals excepted, which are bluish white.

Found in the lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland, especially in Winander Mere, in the latter county; also in Crummock and Coniston Waters in Lancashire, and, according to Sir W. Jardine, in many of the northern lochs of Scotland. Frequents clear and deep waters, keeping near the bottom. Feeds on insects. Varies much in its colours at different seasons, a circumstance which has obtained for it several different names. In its ordinary state, it is the Case Charr of Pennant and other authors: when exhibiting the bright crimson belly which it assumes before spawning, it is called Red Charr: when out of season, the spawn having been shed, it is distinguished by the name of Gilt Charr. Obs. According to Agassiz, the S. Umbla, the S. Salvelinus, the S. alpinus, and the S, Salmarinus, of Linnaeus, are all referable to this species in its different states.