The whole of the plumage, throat included, deep green: tail short, of twelve feathers.

Carbo cristatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 900. Shag, and Crested Shag, Mont. Orn. Diet. & Supp. Shag, Hetr Brit Birds, vol. n. p. 387. Crested Shag, or Green Cormorant, Selb. Illust. vol. ii. p. 450. pl. 86. Gould, Europ. Birds, part x.


Entire length twenty-eight inches: length of the bill (from the forehead) two inches six lines, (from the gape) three inches six lines; of the tarsus two inches two lines; of the tail five inches two lines; from the carpus to the end of the wing ten inches nine lines.


(Adult in icinter). The whole plumage of a rich deep glossy green: upper part of the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts, with bronze and purple reflections, each feather surrounded with a narrow edging of velvet-black: tail short and rounded; black: base of the bill and guttural pouch gamboge-yellow: bill brown: irides green: legs black. (Summer plumage). Remarkable for an elegant crest of long spreading feathers rising from the forehead between the eyes, capable of erection: no white feathers on the neck and thighs as in the last species. (Young of the year). " Distinguished by the whole of the upper part of the plumage being brown, slightly tinted with green; the under surface brownish ash, more or less inclining to white." Gould. (Egg). White, tinged with pale greenish blue in patches; the outer surface rough and calcareous: long. diam. two inches five lines; trans, diam. one inch five lines.

Found principally in the rocky islands of the North of England and Scotland. Common in the Orkneys. Breeds on the shelves of steep rocks. Nest formed of sea-weed. Eggs from three to five in number. Feeds on fish. Is never seen inland.

(24). P. Graculus, Steph. In Shaw's Gen

Zool. vol. xiii. part i. p. 82. Carbo Graculus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 897. Black Cormorant, Gould, Europ. Birds, part x.

This species has been considered as British by nearly all our own Ornithologists, though upon very insufficient authority. It appears to have been confounded with the P. cristatus, from which it differs in the darker colour of its plumage, as well as in other characters which will be found pointed out in Mr Gould's work above referred to.