Lurid brownish gray, with reddish brown tubercles: body large and swollen.

B. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 159. B. terrestris, Rces. Ran. tab. 20. Rana Bufo, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 354. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 80. Bufo, Ray, Syn. Quad. p. 252. Toad, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 14. Common Toad, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. iii. p. 138. pl. 40. Crapaud commun, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 109.


Length three inches three lines; hind leg three inches six lines; fore leg two inches.


(Form). Body broad, thick, and very much swollen: head large, with the crown much flattened, the snout obtuse and rounded: gape extremely wide: no teeth either in the jaws or on the palate: tongue with the apex entire: eyes moderately projecting; above each a slight protuberance studded with pores; a larger protuberance of the same kind on each side of the head behind the ears, with pores more numerous and secreting a foetid humour: fore feet with four divided toes; third toe longest; first and second equal, both a little shorter than the fourth: hind legs moderate, scarcely longer than the body; the toes on these feet semi-palmated, five in number with the rudiment of a sixth; fourth toe much the longest; third a little longer than the fifth: skin every-where covered with warts and pimples of various sizes; largest on the back, but most crowded beneath. (Colours). Upper parts of a lurid brownish gray, sometimes inclining to olive, at other times to black; the colour of the tubercles rufous brown: beneath yellowish white; either plain, or irregularly spotted with black.

* See Edinb. New Phil. Journ. vol. xviii. p. 372.

† Proceed, of Zool. Soc. (1833) p. 88.

‡ That they are not simple varieties of the R. temporaria, is probable from the circumstance of Dr. Stark's having observed osteological differences between them and the species just alluded to. But I think it remains to be shewn that they are really the R. esculenta.

Common in most parts of Great Britain: rare, however, in Ireland, if not an introduced species in that country. Frequents the shady parts of woods and gardens, cellars, and other damp places. Always a few days later in spawning than the Frog; the difference, in some seasons, amounting to more than a fortnight. Ova deposited in long necklace-like chains. Feeds on worms and insects, but is capable of remaining a long time without nourishment. Said to be very long-lived. Obs. The Great Frog of Pennant* is evidently nothing more than a large variety of this species† .