Posterior margin of the gill-cover forming a semicircle: vomerine teeth confined to the anterior extremity: caudal forked: ventrals dusky on their inner surface.

S. Salar, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 509. Block, Ichth. pls. 20, & 98. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 103. Mem. Brit. An. p. 179. Jard. in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. vol. xviii. p. 46. Salmo, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 189. tab. N. 2. f. 1. Salmon, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 284. pl. 58. no. 143. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 382. pl. 69, Le Saumon, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 302.


From two to three feet, sometimes three feet and a half.


{Form). Oval; moderately elongated; with the head and back in nearly the same line: greatest depth a little before the dorsal, contained about five times and a half in the entire length, increasing, however, with age: thickness half the depth: head small, about one-sixth of the entire length: snout rather sharp: jaws, in young fish, nearly equal; but in old males, the lower one longest, and curving upwards in a hook: a row of sharp teeth along both sides of each jaw, as well as on the palatines; but those on the vomer confined to its anterior extremity, and in some specimens rather obsolete; two rows of teeth on the tongue: eyes directly above the posterior extremity of the maxillary, and nearer the end of the snout than the furthest point of the gill-cover by one-third: gill-cover with the posterior margin more curved than in the next species, and forming a semicircle; opercle oblong, the basal margin slightly ascending posteriorly; subopercle about one-third the size of the opercle; a line drawn from the extremity of the upper jaw to the furthest point of the gill-cover passes through the eyes: lateral line perfectly straight, dividing the body into two nearly equal parts: scales small: dorsal occupying a middle position between the end of the snout and the end of the fleshy part of the tail; rather longer than high, its greatest elevation not equalling half the depth of the body; first ray very short; fourth longest; first two rays simple, the rest branched; last two from one root: adipose small; much nearer the caudal than the anal:anal similar to the dorsal, more in advance than the adipose, terminating in a line with this last fin; third ray longest; first two simple; the rest branched; the last two from one root: tail, between the adipose and the caudal fin, more slender than in the next species; the end of the fleshy portion cut square, appearing truncated: caudal very much forked when young, gradually becoming less so as age advances, but never (except perhaps in very old fish) quite even: pectorals more than half the length of the head; tneir inferior margin rather concave; second and third rays longest: ventrals beneath the middle of the dorsal; rather shorter than the pectorals; the axillary scale half their own length: number of rays,

B. 12; D. 14; A, 12; C. 19, and some short ones; P. 15; V. 9.

* Scot. Illust. partii. vol. ii. p. 25.

Number of vertebra? sixty. {Colours). Bluish gray or lead-colour; abdomen silvery; here and there, principally above the lateral line, a few dusky spots: dorsal, caudal, and pectorals, dark gray; ventrals deeply stained, especially on their inner surface, with the same colour: anal less so, nearly white. In the fry, till about Jive or six inches long, the sides shew more or less indication of dark transverse bands. The adult male, during and after the spawning season, acquires a reddish tinge.

Found both in the sea and in rivers. Principal fisheries carried on in Scotland, the North of England, and Ireland, where the species is very abundant. Begins to ascend rivers in April; at the approach of Autumn, pushes up towards their sources in order to spawn, springing up cataracts, and surmounting any other obstacles which oppose its progress. Spawning season principally from October to February, but varying much in different rivers. Male and female pair for the occasion, and excavate a furrow in the gravelly or sandy beds of shallows, in which the spawn and milt are deposited simultaneously. After spawning, both sexes return to the sea in a very reduced state; the males going down sooner than the females; at this season, the former are called Kippers, the latter Kelts. Young fry, termed Smolts or Samlets, appear about March, and keep going down to sea from the end of that month to the middle of May: after remaining in the sea some weeks, they return to the rivers, having attained to the weight of from a pound and a half to four or five pounds: fish of the former weight, and up to two pounds, termed Peal; of the latter weight Grilse, which last name they retain till they have spawned once, when they are called Salmon. From the time of their first return to the rivers, they increase rapidly in size. Greatest weight which the species attains to forty or fifty pounds, sometimes more: Pennant mentions one which weighed seventy-four pounds. Food at sea, according to Fleming, principally the Sand-eel. Obs. According to M. Agassiz *, the S. hamatus of Cuvier is only an old fish of this species: the S. Goedenii of Bloch (Ichth. pl. 102.†) the young.