Jaws equal; snout scarcely advancing beyond them.

C. Lavaretus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 182.? Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 15.? Salmo Wartmanni, Block, Ichth. pl. 105.? Gwiniad, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 183. Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 316. pl. 62. Id. (Ed. 1812). vol. iii. p. 419. pl. 73. Le Lavaret, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 307.?


From ten to twelve inches.


(Form). Extremely similar in form to the Common Herring. Back slightly arched: greatest depth about one-fifth of the entire length: head triangular, also about one-fifth: snout moderate, scarcely advancing beyond the jaws; these last equal, and without teeth; a few very fine velvet-like teeth on the tongue: eyes round, and large; their diameter contained three times and a half in the length of the head; the distance between them about equal to their diameter: gill-opening very large: opercle of a somewhat triangular form, the basal margin ascending very obliquely; subopercle approaching to oblong, rounded beneath: lateral line straight, dividing the sides into two nearly equal parts: scales large; of an oval or roundish form, marked with close concentric circles, but without radiating lines: dorsal occupying about the middle of the entire length; the distance from the end of the snout to the first ray, when measured behind the fin, reaching a little beyond the end of the fleshy part of the tail; anterior part of the fin elevated, the fourth ray, which is longest, equalling three-fourths of the depth of the body; fifth and succeeding rays rather rapidly decreasing; length of the fin about two-thirds of its greatest height; first three rays simple, the rest branched: space between the dorsal and adipose three times that between this last and the caudal: anal commencing considerably beyond the tip of the reclined dorsal, terminating in a line with the adipose; similar to the dorsal in form, but longer and less elevated: caudal deeply forked: pectorals inserted low down, a little shorter than the head: ventrals attached beneath the middle of the dorsal; axillary scale nearly one-third their own length:

B. 10; D. 13; A. 16; C. 19, and some short ones; P. 17; V. 11.

(Colours). " Head dusky; pupil deep blue; gill-covers silvery, powdered with black: back, as far as the lateral line, glossed with deep blue and purple, but towards the line assuming a silvery cast, tinged with gold, beneath which those colours entirely prevail: lateral line marked by a series of distinct dusky spots: ventrals, in some, of a fine sky-blue, in others, as if powdered with blue specks; the ends of the other lower fins tinged with the same colour." Penn.

* According to Sir H. Davy, "the Grayling will not bear even a brackish water, without dying." Salmonia, (2d Edit). p. 207. † Daniel's Rural Sports, vol. ii. p. 280.

This species is found in Bala Lake, Merionethshire, as well as in the North of England and Scotland. I do not feel certain that it is identical with the C. Lavaretus of continental authors (synonymous with the Salmo Wartmanni of Bloch), there being several other allied species, the characters of which have not as yet been determined with precision. The above description is from specimens in the collection of W. Yarrell, Esq. By Turton and some other English authors, it appears to have been confounded with the Salmo Lavaretus of Bloch (S. Oayrhinchus, Linn)., a very distinct species, in which the snout is furnished with a soft conical projection at its extremity extending beyond the jaws, and which is not, that I am aware, a native of this country. According to Pennant, the Gwiniad is a gregarious fish, and spawns in December.