This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Tie Joint is a bed joint strengthened by means of hoop-iron built therein for a tie. It has already been described under bond. In the case of chimneys rising above the roof, crossings of the same should be laid along the withs and lapped to the tie in the chimney walls. It may be inserted every fourth course, or oftener if thought desirable.
Toothed Joint is formed when piecing into toothings either made or left for the purpose.
This is a false or sham joint, occurring principally in brickwork. There are different kinds, but that commonly made with ordinary stocks is done as follows. First of all, the real joints are raked out and the whole of the face is cleaned and rubbed down with a soft piece of the same kind of brick, the dust is brushed off, the wall wetted, and the colouring to bring the light and dark bricks to the same hue, and which is a weak solution of green copperas, is applied. A length of 7 or 8 feet by 5 feet deep is then stopped in with a stopping composed of one part of lime putty and three parts of fine washed sand, coloured with yellow ochre to match when dry the colour of the bricks. In other cases the whole front is stopped before pointing is begun. The part thus prepared is then rubbed down with a piece of dry canvas to bring joints and bricks to the same colour, and narrow grooves accurately gauged (if thought necessary by means of a gauge rod) are run with a long straight edge where the false joints are to appear. A narrow strip of white lime putty, composed of chalk lime and a little silver sand, is then laid perfectly level along the grooves with the rule adjusted to the gauge marks, the rough edges being cut off with the frenchman, thus leaving a white narrow projecting ridge neatly pared to a regular width of about 3/16 in. The vertical joints] are similarly done, and kept perfectly plumb all the way down, so that the work when finished appears to be well built with picked regular-shaped equal-sized bricks with very fine joints.
Upright Joint is either a cross or a back joint.
This includes transverse and back joints, and is obvious from its name. In depositing concrete it is advisable to bevel off the end or edges well when knocking off work, so that there may be no vertical joints between the new and old deposits. To insure a monolith, moreover, the concrete should be spread and rammed in layers not exceeding 1 foot in thickness, the upper surface being well watered if dry when the next layer is about to be tipped in. In laying bricks it is customary merely to plaster a little mortar along the edges of the bricks which show outside, but by subsequently filling up the vertical joints of each course by the operation known as flushing, all the inside cavities disappear, and the work should become solid throughout. If the mortar, however, is not properly spread over the bed, grouting will be required as well, which many consider prejudicial to good work as interfering with the proper setting and adherence of the mortar. Flushing with thin mortar is a more scientific expedient.