This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Collar Joint in arch work is a continuous bed joint surrounding a ring course. It ought to be of regular and equal thickness between each course, otherwise the thickest will shrink most and perhaps produce an unsightly crack, the sure indication of weakness. In some descriptions of work, especially if underground and exposed to an influx of water, it is politic to execute it in Portland cement with a thickness of an inch or so, in which case the same cementing medium will be required throughout, for cement has a tendency to swell instead of shrinking like mortar.
Cross Joint is one which stands at right angles to a coursing joint. Perpends are formed by a series or line of cross joints truly plumb or perpendicular to the horizontal bed joints. The inside upright or vertical joints are either longitudinal or transverse (if not raking), the former being styled back and the latter cross joints, and both of these are in reality butt joints. In good work all should be flushed solid. In a cut and gauged arch the joints parallel to the soffit or intrados are cross joints. It may be added that bricks are said to be laid cross joint when all the vertical joints of a course break joint with those of the next.
Cut And Struck Joint Is Described Under Struck Joint
Diagonal Joint occurs in raking bond, and in single and double herringbone paving, in diagonal quarry paving, etc.
Dipped Joint is made in gauged or rubbed work when setting the bricks in lime putty reduced to the consistency of cream. The bricklayer dips the side of the brick which is to become the bed into the putty so as to allow only just enough to adhere to it to make the joint. It is then bedded and driven close home.
Bricks cut and arranged as in Figs. 4 and 5, form what are called dovetailings, the dovetail joints enclosing them being readily recognisable.
Drawn Joint is one that is filled in flush and smoothed with the trowel and drawn with the jointer and jointing rule. Before the mortar sets the rule is pressed firmly against the work, or a line may be stretched across it instead, and the jointer is run along to mark the centre and equalise the thickness. In whatever way the joint may be finished the distinguishing feature of a drawn joint is the use of the jointer.
This shows on the face of work and may be neatly cut and struck, or left flush, or tuck pointed, or finished in any of the other appropriate ways noticed in this section under their specific heads.