This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
This consists in its simplest form of a butt joint encompassed by a collar, as explained under that head. In sewer-pipes the collar must be fixed by being run with asphalte or cement. Such joints are sometimes formed when junctions are inserted, though to prevent the disarrangement of a line one of the pipes is not unfrequently broken out, and a sort of bell-mouthed junction effected with brickwork in cement and a slab or two of stone.
Half Socket Joint occurs in piping when each pipe has a half socket at both ends, by the aid of which complete sockets with two opposite joints are formed as soon as the pipes are united.
This is formed between the invert blocks of brick sewers when provided with projecting lips to form bond.
The ordinary connection between stoneware and other similar pipes is a spigot and socket joint, usually termed a socket joint. It is made by inserting the spigot or plain end of one tubular piece into the enlarged end, called the faucet or socket, of another, and almost invariably some kind of stuffing or packing is required to fill up that part of the socket not occupied by the spigot. Socketed stoneware pipes are united with clay, cement, or asphalte, without interference with their fullway, the joint being perfectly well smoothed with a stick, and all protuberances and deposits removed before attaching the next length. The utmost care is requisite in every case to guard against the least subsidence after boning, which can only be obviated by bedding not only the ends or sockets but the barrels of the pipes properly, and packing them well underneath ; and not only so, but equal care must be evinced not to injure the pipes with the rammer during the operation of filling in, and not less than six inches of earth should at any time intervene between the pipe and rammer head. Cast iron pipes must be leaded and surrounded with concrete.
Socket Joint is Described In The Previous Paragraph
Stanford Joint is a socket joint between two earthenware pipes made to fit exactly by running into the socket, and round the spigot after the pipes have been burned, rings that are exact counterparts of each other, and composed of a material consisting of ground earthenware pipes, sulphur, and tar, which immediately sets hard and adheres firmly to the pipe. No cementing medium is required, but a water-tight and air-tight joint allowing considerable motion results from merely inserting one end into the other, and painting or not, as thought desirable, with tar or grease. The pipes fit mechanically together, but care must be taken that they are laid on a firm bed, or one that will not become hereafter treacherous, otherwise a settlement of a portion of the sewer might cause the joints to draw. Messrs. Doulton & Co., of Lambeth, are the makers of the pipes.
Tight Joint is one that is impervious to air or fluid under any pressure likely to be applied to it. The socket joints of stoneware drain or soil-pipes out of the ground and inside dwellings ought to be stopped with some material such as asphalte, that is not porous nor likely to become so from continued exposure. It is very difficult to make a joint strictly tight, owing to the imperfection of labour, the alterations in the form of bodies brought about by external forces, shrinkage, and the influence of the weather, to which must be added other causes arising from porosity, from the difficulty of securing in many instances perfect adhesion, and from the subtlety of the wind in preventing a vacuum. The thorough ventilation of drains and soil-pipes, which latter, by the way, ought always to be fixed outside buildings, is about the best means of indirectly conferring upon them the incalculable advantage of tight joints.