Four or five ordinary coats of paint having been applied, the last is composed of equal parts of oil and turpentine, and should approximate in tint to the final colour required, after which thin glazings of Terra de Sienna, Umber, Vandyke brown, or other required tints, are applied.

These tints may for ordinary work be ground in water, and mixed with small beer; but for oak graining a thicker substance is required, and the colour is mixed with turpentine and a little turpentine varnish, and its surface, before it is dry, is scratched over (with combs, or with flat brushes, dipped in oil and turps), to imitate the grain of different woods. The representations of knots are produced by dexterous touches with the tips of the fingers, or with pieces of cloth, or sponge, moistened with turps. In ordinary work the surface is completed by covering it with two coats of copal varnish.

1 Seddon's Builders' Work.

The ground and the graining colours differ with each variety of wood to be imitated - thus, for Light Oak, the ground would be of white-lead and stone-ochre thinned with half raw oil and half turps; the graining of raw umber and whiting thinned with half and half as above, the overgraining of Vandyke brown in water. For Bird's-eye Maple the ground would be of white stained with vermilion, thinned with 3 turps, 1 oil; the graining York brown, Vandyke brown, and burnt sienna, in porter, with a little paste.

A detailed description of the processes by which different kinds of wood are imitated would be of no practical use; the examples just given are merely to convey a general idea of the methods adopted.

Grained work, including the varnishing, lasts longer than ordinary painted work.

Superior work is "overgrained " - that is, a glaze of colour in beer, as dark as may be requisite, is laid over the comb-work in shades thrown across the work.