The angles of walls are given below; the attention of the student having been called to all really essential points, except that the closer course in pairs comes alternately on each side of the angle, as the brick at the angle, which is header to one face, is stretcher to the other, and vice rent; and the student should note also that the internal angle is bonded in one way in one course, and the other way in the next course, alternately (as shown by the arrows), and always with a header, if possible.
Figs. 63, 64, and 65 represent, in plan and section, two alternating courses at a corner or angle, with a blank end of 9-inch wall, English bond; and figs. 66, 67, and 68, 69, 70, and 71, and 71, 73, and 74, the same for a 14-inch, an 18-inch, and a 22-inch wall respectively.
Figs. 75, 76, and 77 illustrate, similarly, a 9-inch wall in Flemish bond; figs. 78, 79, 80, and 81, the same for a 14-inch wall in single Flemish bond, showing false headers, marked thus X X; double Flemish bond for the same being shown in figs. 82, 83, and 84; while, for an 18-inch wall, double Flemish bond is shown in figs. 85, 86, and 87; and single Flemish bond in figs. 88, 89, and 90. Finally, figs. 91, 92, and 93 show a 22-inch wall in Flemish bond, from which it will be seen that Flemish becomes very troublesome and weak in thicker walls, as compared with English; the angles having to be tied in with stretchers internally, which is against the rule previously laid down.
Section bb. Fig.80.
Section aa. Fig.81.
The modes of treatment and construction for irregular angles are dealt with in figs. 94, 95, 96. and 97, which represent 14-inch bay-window angles, in English and Flemish bond respectively. The external angles of these are called squints, and the internal birdsmouths; the bricks measuring 6 3/4 and 2 1/4 inches on the two faces, which are placed alternately; each course with a closer always coming next the 2 1/4-face in the work, this being equivalent to a header.
It will be noticed that the Flemish bond (as figs. 96 and 97) is very inferior and irregular; in fact, there is no regular system about it - no two bricklayers working such angles alike in Flemish bond, the difficulty being in the internal work. The only rule that can be laid down with regard to them is that they must be bonded in alternate courses by pairs of headers cut and tied in by the stretchers within the angle one course, and without the next, as shown in the figures; the same rule, of course, applying to English bond as well; the internal header being placed at the back of the 6f face of the squint brick.
In the same way, figs. 98 and 99 represent the methods of treatment and construction for two courses of an acute angle in an 18-inch wall.
Intersections of internal and external walls are done very simply, the internal wall toothing into the external wall 2 1/4 inches in each alternate course, as in figs. 100, 101, 102, and 103; the joints being broken alternately on the respective courses, as shown by the arrows, and care being taken that where possible each should tie in with a header.
Brick piers are subjected to the same treatment with regard to the necessary closer at the plumbing angles to break the joint; though it cannot be applied to anything smaller than piers with sides of 18 inches wide or more, in which case they are treated as shown in rigs. 104, 105,
106, 107, 108, and 109; from which it will be seen that English alone the bond necessarily used.
Sleeper walls supporting ground floor joists are built 4 1/2 inches thick, and about 8 feet apart, to reduce the spans of the joists in big room; and they are either built with openings here and there to allow of ventilation, or as fig. no, which is called honeycomb work.
Fender walls are those built round fireplaces to carry the hearthstones and take the ends of the joists, which would otherwise have to be trimmed.
Brick cores are the irregular-shaped brick surfaces between the tops of fiat lintels and the soffits of relieving or discharging arches, as in fig. in.