Window openings are filled in with two classes of joiner's framing - cased frames filled in with sashes, or solid frames with casements.

Sash Frames

Cased frames are of two parts, as stated above, consisting of sashes, in one or more squares, with or without bars, suspended over pulleys by lines with regulated weights tied on at the other end, in boxings framed together as jambs. These jamb boxings are connected by a head at the top and sill at the bottom, forming a four-sided frame, within which the two sashes are enclosed.

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Fig. 635.

1" Scale.

Fig. 695 represents, to a small scale, the plan of a cased frame with its sashes; Fig. 696 is a section of the same.

Figs. 697 and 698 are enlargements of the same, at the points marked A, B, C, and D, respectively; and the detailed parts are lettered as follows: -

P S, pulley style; P P, pocket piece; P H, pulley head - i.e., head of style; S C, sash cord; W, weights; I L, inside lining; O L, outside lining; EL, back lining; P B, parting bead; PL, parting lath; TB, inside or stop bead; S, sill; B, blockings; S, styles of sashes; B R, bottom' rail of sashes; M R, meeting rails of sashes; T R, top rail of sashes; S B, sash bar.

From the enlarged illustrations the student will have noticed that the thickness of the sashes, whether it be 1 6/8, 1 3/4, 1 3/4, 2, or 2 1/4 inches, regulates the thickness of the whole boxing. All the other usual sizes are Fig.ured, so that he should be able to apply the above to any thickness of sash.

Fig. 696.

1" Scale.

Fig. 697.

Scale a full size.

On Fig. 697, the plan of the jamb, both sash styles are shown, though only the inner or bottom sash is really seen in its place when the section is taken below the meeting rail C, and that of the top or outside sash is only observed when a section is made above the meeting rails.

It will also be noticed that the two weights are shown in the boxings. This sash-frame is supposed to be doubh-hung - a.e., both sashes are suspended by the cords over the pulleys, and weighted, so that they can be regulated when neither open nor shut. If the sashes were single-hung only one weight should be shown in each jamb on the same side of the full size parting lath, P L, inside the boxing - the same side as the hung sash is of the parting bead outside. This parting bead should be of oak or leak, to provide against undue swelling and sticking of the sashes.

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Fig. 698.

Scale 1/4.

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Fig. 699.

2" Scale.

Fig. 699 is an elevation of the pulley style, without the sashes in; and Fig. 700 a section, showing the working details of the axle pulleys, weights, cords, and pocket pieces, the latter of which are for putting in and getting out the weights, when hanging or regulating the sashes. One pulley only is shown on each pulley style when the sash is 'single-hung.'

Fig. 700.

2" Scale.

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Fig. 701.

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Fig. 702.

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Fig. 703.

The pulley styles are housed and wedged into the oak sills, as shows on Fig. 701, and housed into the head which runs across at the top (See Fig. 70a.)

The linings are united at the top angles, as Fig. 703; and the sill is notched out for them at the bottom, as Fig. 704.

The meeting rails are always about 1/4 inch thicker than the styles, or thickness of the sash, to fill up the space of the parting bead, which creates a space where the top and bottom sashes meet, as shown in Fig. 705.

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Fig. 704.

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Fig. 705.

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Fig. 706 shows the space filled up properly by the meeting of the sashes, which should lock as shown, the top sash always being outside on account of the ledge which it would create at the meeting with the bottom sash if it were inside, as Fig. 707.

Sometimes the oak sills are double-sunk, as shown in Fig. 708, and the top or inside bead, I B, is made deeper, so that ventilation can be let into the room without creating a draught, by raising the bottom sash a little, so that it does not get above the top or inside bead, while the air gets in between the meeting rails of the sashes not properly locked, as Fig. 709.

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Fig. 707. 2" Scale.

Fig. 708.

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Fig. 709.

To prevent the wet driving or sucking up the sills they and the top or inside bead, I B, are made to either of the sections on Fig. 710.

The cord is connected to the sash style, as Fig. 711, which is a view of the side of the sash style running up the pulley style; a space for the cord being made in the thickness of the style, as the plan shows, with an enlarged place for the knot, as on elevation.

The outside linings of the frames are often moulded on the edge in better work, as Fig. 713.

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Fig. 710.

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Fig. 711.

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Fig. 712.

The sashes themselves are moulded to a variety of designs; Fig. 713 being chamfered; Fig. 714, ovolo-moulded; Fig. 715, lamb's-tongue moulded; Fig. 716, astragal and hollow-moulded; Fig. 717, moulded.

All rebates for the glass in the sashes should be no less than 3/8 inch deep, and about 3/4 inch wide.

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Fig. 713.

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Fig. 714.

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Fig. 715.

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Fig. 716.

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Fig. 717.

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Fig. 718.

Sash bars are of width varying from 3/4 inch to 1 1/2 inch, by the thickness of the sash; but the thinner they are the better, as they do not block up so much light. They are moulded on each side to the moulding of the sash itself, an ovolo-moulded sash being as Fig. 718; and they are connected together, as Fig. 719, by a scribing and mortise and tenon; T being the tenon, M the mortise, and Sc the scribing.