Those in the direction of the jars or blows are made the "through" bars, with the mortises. The other joints between styles and rails are scribed, mortised and tenoned together, and wedged up.

When sashes are not hung they are said to fixed sashes.

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Fig. 719.

Venetian sashes are 3-light windows, the centre light being larger than the sidelights, as Fig. 720; the boxed mullion between being as Fig. 721, when all sashes are hung; and Fig. 72s illustrates the treatment when this is not the case; the mullions taking up far less room; and the weights of the centre sash (the only one hung) are enclosed in the jambs, the cords being worked by pulleys over the sidelights, as Fig. 723 will explain, the two lights being shown to illustrate the difference of working as compared with the usual way.

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Fig. 720.

Fig. 721.

1 1/2" Scale.

Fig. 722.

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Fig. 728.

Marginal sashes have a narrow margin formed by a sash bar up or around the lights, the space between the bar and the style being the margin, as Fig. 724.

Single and double-hung sashes have been explained in the general description.

Circular-headed sashes have the underside of their top rails and the head of the outside linings cut to the outline of the arch, while the inside is kept square and flat (Figs. 725 and 726).

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Fig. 724.

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Outside. Fig. 725.

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Inside Fig. 726.

Circular-headed sash frames have their boxings, as well as their sashes, ramed circularly inside and outside. But the. only difference noticeable in a section is, that the pulleys must be placed below the springing line. The plans are the same, and the elevation of course different, showing exactly what the work is. The pulley style is cut to a thin veneer, and blocked out, as Fig. 727, the two bending over and meeting at the crown, where they are joined. Sashes are secured by means of sash fasteners, consisting of a lever on a plate screwed to the upper side of the meeting rail of the top sash, which turns under a catch, screwed by a plate to the upper side of the meeting rail of the bottom sash, as Fig. 728.

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Fig. 727.

When large heavy sashes are used they are lifted up, when to he-opened, by projecting or flush lifts fixed to the bottom rail of the bottom sash, and the top sash is pulled down by a ring fastened to its top rail.

Solid Frames are made of solid heads, sills, and jambs, similar to door-frames, and filled in with casements exactly the same as sashes, but hung by "butts" to the sides of the solid framing.

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Elevation Fig.719.

Plan Fig.730.

There is very little difference to be noted on the external elevation as compared with that of a sash or cased frame, except that there are no meeting rails to be seen; the real difference being in the working of them, as shown by plans, sections, and of course the details.

Figs. 729, 730, and 731 represent the elevation, plan, and section of a solid-framed, single-light window, with a casement hung to a jamb to open inwards. It will be noticed that the brick jambs need not be so wide; a inches is quite sufficient as compared with 4 1/2 inches for a cased frame; and, moreover, a solid frame does not require so much depth of jamb for its thickness, 4 1/2 inches again being ample, whereas some sashes or cased frames require as much as 6 1/2 inches; but this varies according to the thickness of the sashes, linings, etc.

Fig. 733 1 1/2" Scale.

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Fig. 734.

Fig. 732 is an enlargement of the plan of a jamb or section of the head, both being alike; and Fig. 733 is a section of the sill of chamfered casements and frames to open inwards.

The casements are hung to the jamb by a pair of 2 1/2 or 3-inch butts, and secured by a casement fastener, the principle of all the very numerous different kinds being a handle with a pin, which turns on a brass plate screwed to the casement, and enters into a mortise or staple on a plate screwed to the solid frame (Fig. 734).

Fig., 735 represents plan and section of head, and Fig. 736 a section of the sill, of a moulded casement to open outwards.

These are hung and fastened in the same manner as the last-named, and the opening arrangement is regulated by means of a stay with a movable joint fixed to the bottom rail of the casement. The arm is pierced with a suitable number of holes, which fit on to a pin, screwed by a plate to the sill, whereby the opening may be regulated and the casement fixed in any position required (Fig. 737).

Fig. 736. 1 1/2" Scale.

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Fig. 738. 1" Scale.

Hopper casements are similar to hopper fanlights and fall inwards, being hung to the sill, as Fig. 738, Fig. 739 being a section of jamb and head with lamb's-tongue moulded casements.

Fig. 740.

They are secured by the spring fastenings illustrated in the last chapter.

Pivoted casements, or those hung on centres, are explained by Fig. 740,Figs. 741 and 742 being sections of the jamb above and below the pivots. If any further explanation is required, the student must refer to the same kind of thing in fanlights, where their principle is described in detail.

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Fig. 741.

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Fig. 742.

Sliding casements, as the name implies, are those which are made in two sections, the one to slide past the other. Fig. 743 is a plan of a frame, filled in with two sliding casements, of which L L are locking styles, each being rebated out to fit the other; and Figs. 744 and 745 give sections of the sill and head.