Some internal as well as external doors are made with transoms and fanlights over them, to give additional and regular light as Fig. 632, X being the fanlight, which can be either fixed, or hung on butts or centres.
External Door with Fanlight.
Fig. 632. 1/4 Scale.
The fanlight itself consists of a piece of skeleton framing, similar to a glazed sash, with or without bars. The transom, more or less intricate in section, acts as a head to the door frame, and sill to the fanlight; being framed - by mortise and tenon joints - into the jambs, the head of the fanlight frame is similar to that for the head of the door, which has now been superseded by the transom.
Fig. 633 represents the jamb, head, and sill, with transom, of a fixed fanlight, a close examination of which will show all that is required for the purpose.
The styles and head of the fanlight are generally square, 1 3/4 inches or 2 inches, as the thickness of the fanlight and rebate on the frame. They may be of any section, ovolo-moulded (Fig. 634); chamfered (Fig.- 635); lamb's-tongue moulded (Fig. 636); or of any other design; but the glass must always be put in from the outside. Where putty is used it is always the best, and renders it the more water and wind-tight as the weather presses the glass against the rebate, as Fig. 637.
Fig. 633.1 1/2"Scale.
Fig. 639. 1 1/2" Scale Plan.
Occasionally, however, when loose beads are used, the glass is put in from the inside, as Fig. 638, but never with putty. The mouldings certainly look better outside in contrast to the putty, but the work is never so good.
A hopper fanlight - i.e., one to open inwards, hung on butts to the transom - is illustrated at Fig. 639, which explains itself.
Fanlights are seldom made to open outwards, because they are very apt to help the rain to come into the house, as can be imagined from Fig. 640.
Section Fig. 639.
Fig. 641. Scale 1 1/2".
A fanlight hung on centres is represented by Fig. 641, from which the principles may be gathered. The jambs have a solid bead on the lower part of their height (something less than the half) inside, and on the upper part outside; with loose beads planted on the style of the fanlight, in reverse fashion; mitre-cut to fit each other-, each loose bead into the corresponding solid bead on the jam i.e. both inside and outside, when closed.
This is done to allow the swing-fanlight to open outwards at the bottom and inwards at the top, revolving on pivots which fit into slots fixed on each jamb.
These are also called pivoted fanlights, from the manner of hanging them on pivots, as Fig. 642.
The advantage of pivoted or "centre-hung" fanlights is that, being out of reach, so to speak, they can be easily opened and closed by means of cords and pulleys. If the fanlight have the pivots fixed a little above the centre of its height it will close of itself.
Should the fanlights be divided into small squares, the bars used are similar to those explained for sashes in Chapter XVIII (Windows And Window Finishings. Windows And Frames).
Hopper fanlights (Fig. 639) are secured by small spring fasteners,' fixed to the top rail of the fanlight, with a box staple, to receive the spring bolt, fixed on the head of the frame, as Fig. 643. The ring serves to pull the bolt back when the light is required to be opened.
Pivoted lights can be secured properly by means of the cords, which may be tied over belaying hooks (Fig. 644) screwed to the frame of the door, or to the linings.