Those for 14-inch walls must, of course, be cross-tongued, having to be made out of two widths of stuff, 11 inches being the widest procurable.

Fig. 682 is a plan of a cross-tongued double-rebated casing.

Occasionally, this cross-tonguing is superseded by framing on loose rebates on each side, as Fig. 683, which has the advantage of not showing any crack if the joint gives, as would be seen with the cross-tonguing, as Fig. 68 2.

Plan 1" Scale Fig. 682.

It is also a good plan to key them across their back with hardwood keys, to keep them from twisting; the keys being dovetailed in, as it were (see Fig. 684), and driven home from the thick to the thin end.

Plan 1" Scale Fig. 683.

This difficulty is often obviated by using skeleton casings; but it should be noted that these can be, and are, often used for any other widths. They have the advantage of giving a firmer and better fixing for the hanging style of the door. The 1 1/2-inch thickness, which the rebate left of a 2-inch casing or lining, was all too little and weak for hanging a large door to; whereas, with the skeleton casing and "loose" stop, we have always a inches to hang to, and without waste of stuff and extra cost, such as would be entailed if there had been 2-inch rebates, on plain linings.

Fig. 685 represents an enlarged plan, and Fig. 686 a small elevation, of the jamb, before the rebate, or rather stop piece, is planted on its face to form the rebates.

Panelled casings, as the name implies, are more ornamental than any of the last. Still they cannot be used for narrow casings; 11 inch even make the panels rather cramped up. The panels must range in height, etc., with the doors, those on the jambs by the panels of the door in height, and those on the head according to the number of panels at the top of the door. It is always as well to show the top or "soffit" panelling, as it is termed, by dotted lines on the plan, as Fig. 687, which gives a plan, etc., of panelled linings or casings for an 18-inch wall, and Fig. 688 a smaller-scaled elevation.

Miscellaneous Doors PracticalBuildingConstruction01 584

Fig. 684.

Sectional Elevation Fig. 686.

From Figs. 687 and 688 the student will gather that the door is 6-panelled, 3 in height and 2 wide; a 5 and frieze-panelled door would have had only 1 panel on the soffit where 2 are shown by dotted lines on the plan.

Miscellaneous Doors PracticalBuildingConstruction01 585Miscellaneous Doors PracticalBuildingConstruction01 586

Fig. 688. 1/2" Scale.

Oftentimes the rebates are what are called loose rebates, and they are sometimes beaded in addition, as Fig. 689.

From the various illustrations, etc., given of linings or casings, the student will have noticed how important it is that the framed grounds round the doorway should be fixed to the gauge shown on Fig. 591 perfectly plumb on the face and sides; though the latter can sometimes be corrected by the wedges used to regulate and secure the proper line of the door casings.

Dadoes are wooden framings fixed to the walls around a room, either as an ornament or for protection. They are usually about 1 1/4 inches in thickness, and can be made of plain, cross-tongued, or any other of the various kinds of maich-boarding; or, in better work, they are panelled, and can be square-framed, moulded, chamfered, bolection-moulded, bead flush, or with raised or other ornamental panels, as explained and illustrated for doors.

Miscellaneous Doors PracticalBuildingConstruction01 587

Fig. 690. 3/4" Scale.

They are square at the back and fixed to grounds and backings plugged to the brick walls; but, to prevent damp, they should be painted at the back before being permanently fixed.

Fig. 690 represents a section and part elevation of a panelled dado with its belongings, X showing what is called a kg, being the end style, which runs down to the floor; between these legs the dado only goes just below the top of the skirting. There is no regulated height for dadoes; they vary according to taste and the number of panels in height. Of course, in match-boarded dadoes, the boards are fixed perpendicularly, and generally run down to the floor.

Miscellaneous Doors PracticalBuildingConstruction01 588

69l.1" Scale.

All internal angles of dadoes are tongued and grooved, and the external angles mitred and tongued, or formed with any other suitable joint, explained in Chapter XVI (Joints And Mouldings In Joinery. Joinery Defined)., to which please refer,

Miscellaneous Doors PracticalBuildingConstruction01 589

Skirtings are plain or moulded longitudinal boards, of various heights, fixed on grounds and backings to the walls at the floor line. In best work they are tongued into the floor, as Fig. 691, which represents a moulded skirling with its fixings.

Internal angles are tongued with the mouldings scribed over each other, and the external angles are mitred only.

A double skirting consists of two or more members, as Fig. 692, and generally necessitates the backings being cut to the shape of the back of the complete skirtings, as Fig. 693.

Chair rail is the name given to the longitudinal mouldings which are fixed at the height of the tops of the backs of chairs, as a capping to dadoes, as in Fig. 693; or to grounds on plaster walls, as Fig. 694.

Fig. 693.

The chair rail is often called the "surbase," and the skirting the "plinth" or "base" of a dado.

Skirtings and dadoes are often made of plaster or cement, instead of wood; but these will be explained in Chapter XXI (Plastering, Painting, And Glazing. Plaster Work Materials). on "Plastering," etc.