Fig. 660. 1/2" Scale.
Fig. 662. 3/4" Scale.
This is done both for effect, and to allow of more area of glass, which is secured within the framing by loose beads mitring round the panels and screwed to the framing after the glass is in.
Fig. 663 is an enlarged plan of the style, showing the glass and mode of fixing. The styles of this kind of door are often called gun-stock styles, from the shape which results from the diminution.
Dwarf doors is a name given to doors of very small area, principally to cisterns, cupboards, and trapdoors.
Jib doors are those which are made to correspond in appearance with the walls of a room, having the same finishings, in the shape of skirtings, dadoes, chair, and picture rails, or cornices, fixed to them as to the walls. They are out of date now, and seldom used.
Fig. 666. 1/2" Scale.
Sliding doors (when double) are made in two portions, which run past each other on wheels when required to open. The wheels, which may either be fixed to the top or bottom of the doors (Figs. 668 and 669), have a hollow margin in the centre, which grips an iron or hard wood guide (Fig. 664) running past the openings, the whole width of the doors, to keep them in position.
This class of door is suitable for goods sheds, fittings, and other situations where there is not room for a door to open on its hinges, as Fig. 665.
To overcome this difficulty the sliding door is used either double or single, according to the width of the framing and spaces at its sides (Fig. 666).
Fig. 667 shows an opening with narrow sides, which necessitates the door being in two halves.
Figs. 668 and 669 show, respectively, sliding doors, with wheels on a runner overhead, and on a runner underneath, with guides to suit the alternate methods.
Folding doors are those which, being too wide to be hung to one jamb, are divided into two parts, each hung to a jamb, right and left, and meeting in the centre, as Fig. 670. Each of the half-doors is hung with butts to the jamb, and one "leaf" or "fold" is fastened by bolts at top and bottom, into sockets fixed to the head of the frame or linings, and to the floor. The other leaf is secured with either a rim or mortise lock (as before described), but the latter has to be rebated to suit the section of the closing style of the door.
They are made in the same way as other doors, the meeting styles (as they are called) at X being rebated, as Fig. 671, to form a joint; and in best work this is more or less checked to prevent the ingress of draughts and damp, as Fig. 671.
The jambs of these and other kinds of doors and frames are also often checked out for the same reasons (Fig. 673), but it is better to leave a hollow on the frame, as Fig. 674, and have no projection on the style of the door, which has been proved to suck or draw in the rain in windy weather.
Doublc-margintd doors are imitation folding doors. The door is hung in one width, with a bead worked on the middle from top to bottom, to make it appear as if it were made in two parts.
Internal doors have " linings " or casings, which can be either plain or panelled, according to the thickness of the walls they are in for theirPlain casings are used for doors in 4 1/2-inch, 9-inch, and sometimes in 14-inch brick or corresponding stone walls. A rebate on the casing, 1/2 an inch In depth, around the three sides of the door, regulates the size of the casing. Thus for a door a feet 9 inches X 6 feet 9 inches, the casings must be 2 feet 9 inches between the rebates in width, and 6 feet 9 inches between floor and rebate in height. Their width is regulated by the thickness of the walls plus the plastering, if any, on each side. A casing for a 4 1/2-inch wall should be 4 1/2 inches, plus two 3/4 inches for plastering - i.e., 6 inches wide; and for a 9-inch wall it should be 10 1/2 inches wide.
Section Fig. 676 1" Scale.
Fig. 677. 1"Scale.
Plain casings are generally 2 inches thick, and either single or double-rebated - the one being necessary for the door and the other according to fancy and uniformity.
Fig. 675 represents the plan of one jamb of the casing for a 2-inch door in a 4 1/2-inch wall, singk-rebated.
Fig. 676 gives the section at the head showing the architraves on each side in elevation and section.
Fig. 677 shows a front view of part of a door lining or casing, with lintel and relieving arch, and rebate for doors, whereof Fig. 678 is an enlarged view.
Fig. 678. Plan.
Fig.679 1" Scale.
Plan Fig. 681.
Double-rebated casings have a rebate on the other edge, corresponding to that for the door; a 6-inch casing - i.e,, for a 4 1/2-inch wall - being as Fig.- 679, which is a section through the head. It is needless to give the jamb; the student should be quite able to follow that out himself.
The "single and double-rebated" casings for 9-inch walls are similar to the last, but of course wider.
Fig. 680 represents the plan of a single, and Fig. 681 that of a double-rebated casing for a 9-inch wall.