30. As the method of forming plane and curved surfaces on stone will be the subject of a separate section, Stereotomy, it will not be taken up at this place; only the different surface finishes will be here described.

31. Fig. 3 shows rock-faced, or pitch-faced, work, and the method of using the pitching chisel. The face of the stone is left rough, just as it it comes from the quarry, and the joints, or edges, are pitched off to a line, as shown at a. As but little work is required for this finish, rock-face dressing is cheaper than any other kind, especially when granite or hard limestone is used.

32. Margins :-

The next step in dressing stone consists in cutting margin, or draft lines, as shown at a, Fig. 4, the rock-face surface of the stone being indicated at b. The margin is cut with a chisel on the soft stones, and with an ax on granite.

Finish Of Stonework 130

Fig. 3

Finish Of Stonework 131

Fig. 4.

33. Broached Work

Broached Work. Fig-. 5 shows what is known as broached work, by which the stone is dressed so as to leave continuous grooves over the surface. At a is shown the margin, or draft line, and at b, the broached center.

33 Broached Work 132

Fig. 5.

34. Pointed Work

Pointed Work. When it is not necessary to dress the faces to less than 1/4-inch or 1/2-inch projections, and when a smooth finish is not required - as in the case of basement walls and piers - the rough faces of the stone are taken off with a point, and the surface is rough or fine pointed, according as the point is used over every inch or every half inch of the stone. Figs. 6 and 7, respectively, show rough and fine pointed work, a being the draft line, and b the pointed surface.

34 Pointed Work 133

Fig. 6.

35. Tooth-Chiseled Work

Tooth-Chiseled Work. This is one of the cheapest methods of working stone, and is done with the tooth chisel, shown at (b), Fig. 2, which gives a surface resembling pointed work, but not as regular.

35 Tooth Chiseled Work 134

Fig. 7.

36. Tooled "Work. - For this finish, a chisel from 3 to 4 1/2 inches wide - see (e), Fig. 2 - is used, and the lines are continued across the width of the stone to the draft line (when one is used), as shown in Fig. 8. When well done, it makes a very good finish for sandstones and limestones.

35 Tooth Chiseled Work 135

Fig. 8.

37. Drove Work

Drove Work. This is similar to tooled work, but a flat chisel, about 2 1/2 inches wide - shown at (h), Fig. 2 - is used. The finish represented in Fig. 9 does not take quite so much time as tooled work, and is, therefore, considerably cheaper, but does not look so well, as the dressing extends over only a portion of the surface, and the lines are broken.