1. The origin of house roofing is to be found in the endeavor and determination of man to provide for his physical wants and comforts. Man, in a primitive and uncultivated state, commenced by rudely imitating birds and beasts in his attempts at shelter seeking and self-protection, constructing or appropriating caves, or building arbors of twigs and branches. The hunter had recourse to the cave, the nomad to the tent and bower, while the agriculturist built himself huts of dried turf. The skins of beasts preceded the tent and the tent developed the bell roof of the Chinese and Tartars. See Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1.