The use of joist and girder hangers, etc. simplifies greatly the work of framing both for house and mill construction. With these hangers a good bearing and firm support for the joists, girders, etc. may be had, and in case of fire the timbers may give way without injury to the masonry.

At (a), (6), and (c), Fig. 16, are shown the ordinary forms of wrought-iron stirrups, or hangers; at (d), (e), and (f) are shown joist hangers for use in frame buildings; at (g). (i), and (j) hangers for use in brick walls. At (k) is represented a hanger for heavy girders or joists, adjustable to suit several sizes of timber by changing the bearing plate a, thus serving the same purpose as that shown at (/), which represents a hanger made in right and left parts, and fastened together by a bolt. Of the hangers shown, (d), (g), (k) are the Van Dorn; (e), (h), (i), (j), (I), the Duplex; and (f), the Goetz, types.

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Fig 18.

At (a), (b), and (c), Fig. 17, are represented 2-member post caps; one is steel and the others are cast iron. At (d) and (e) are shown3-mem-ber post caps; at (f), (g), and (h), one steel and two cast-iron 4-mem-ber post caps. At (i) and (j) are shown two cast-iron wall-bearing plates; at (k), a steel wall-plate hanger; at (l), a cast-iron box anchor for use over a 1 edged wall; at (m), (n), and (o), cast-iron bar anchors, the latter for I beams. At (p) is shown a steel base plate, and at (q) and (r), two forms of cast-iron base plates. The caps, etc., shown at (a), (d), (f), {k), and (p), are the Van Dorn; and those at (6), (c), (e), (g), (h), (I), (m), (n), and (o), the Goetz styles.

In Fig. 18 are shown the common forms of anchors for tying wood floor joists to masonry. They are made of wrought bar iron about 1/4 in. X 2 in., and about 2 ft. long. Where the anchor passes through the wall, as at (d), a cast-iron washer, or plate, holds the anchor in place. In Fig. 19 are shown several forms of ties for anchoring I

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Fig. 19 beams, channels, etc.; (a), (6), (c), and (d) represent ordinary wall anchors; (e) is a tie-rod anchor running through the wall, and (f) shows the upper I beams connected by a fish-plate and secured to the girder by clips.

When wall boxes or hangers are not used, templets, or bearing stones, should be placed under the ends of beams and girders, to distribute the weight evenly on the wall. They should be of tough stone, having a thickness of about 1/3 the least surface dimension, but not less than 4 in. It is well to place flat stones above the joists, etc., so that any shrinkage in the latter will not affect the wall. The building laws of some cities provide that joists shall be supported on corbels, at least 4 in. wide. This is a good construction, but a cornice is required to conceal the corbel.