There are certain features which are common to all types of frames. For instance, the framing around all doors and windows requires the use of double 2 by 4's or the use of one 4 by 4.

These framing studs around the window are set 5 inches higher and 8 inches wider than the dimensions of the finished window. Those about the door-openings are set 2 inches higher and 4 inches wider.



All use sheathing-boards of 7/8-inch stock to cover the outside of the studs, and these are usually 6 inches to 8 inches wide.

The usual spacing of studs is 16 inches on centres, and they are generally of 2 by 4's, although where any pipes or flues are run through the partition they should be 2 by 6's.

Interior stud partitions should be bridged or braced once in their height, and partitions which run parallel to the floor-joists should have a capping-board, so that the proper nailing for lath can be secured. In fact, at all intersections of partitions care should be exercised that the required nailing for lath is provided.

In the construction of roofs the average spacing of rafters is 20 inches on centres. They should be doubled around all openings. The ridge is usually of a 1-inch by 10-inch piece. The size of the rafters varies with the length of span and load. They are usually 2 inches by 6 inches for short spans and light loads, and 2 inches by 8 inches or 2 inches by 10 inches for long spans and comparatively heavy loads. Valley rafters must always be deeper and heavier than the rafters and should be designed as a girder. The hip rafters do not carry any great load, but are often made deeper to fit the incline cut of the jack rafters.

All floor-joists are spaced 16 inches on centres, and should be bridged. The following is the table commonly followed for good house construction, although lighter work is most often specified:



12' and under....

2" x 10" cross-bridged once.

12' to 15'......

2" x 10" doubled every other one, if good stiffness is desired, and bridged twice.

15' to 20'......

3" x 12" and of long-leaf yellow pine, crowned at centre 1/2", and bridged three times.

20' to 25'......

3" x 14" of long-leaf yellow pine, crowned at the centre 1" for the 25' spans, and bridged four times.

Floor-joists should be doubled around all openings larger than 3 feet, and joists should be hung from the header beam by metal straps.

There are many precautions which should be taken to prevent the spread of fire in the wooden-frame house, but those will be considered as a special subject. Likewise the discussion of certain defects of construction which are commonly found in the speculative house will be dealt with later.