It will be noticed in the illustration how different is the amount of cross-section of wood in exterior and interior walls of the combination-frame, a thing which causes the unequal settlement previously alluded to. In order to reduce this to a minimum, it is often specified that the studs of all interior partitions be carried down to the top of the cap of the partition below or to the top of the supporting girder, thus reducing the amount of cross-section timber. This is not a complete cure, however, although it is a big improvement.
The real solution of the difficulty lies in the use of the platform system of construction. In this system the first floor is built on top of the foundation-walls, as though it were a platform. A sill, called the box-sill, is constructed for the exterior support of the ends of the floor-joists by laying down a timber the same size as the joists and setting another one on the extreme edge in a vertical position. The angle thus formed makes a resting-box into which the floor-joist can be framed. The interior ends of the floor-joists should be supported upon a steel I-beam upon which has been placed a 2-inch-thick timber. The I-beam should be supported upon steel-tube columns which have been filled with concrete. On top of the floor-joists should be nailed the underflooring, laid diagonally. The first floor then appears as a perfectly smooth platform. Now wherever there is to be erected an interior or exterior partition, a 2 by 4, called the sole piece, is nailed directly on top of the rough flooring.
This serves as a sill for the studs of the partition, which are now erected vertically upon them and capped with double 2 by 4's on the top. Now the second floor is built on top of the partitions in the same manner as the first, and a new platform is constructed, so to speak. Upon this is then erected the partitions of the second floor, and on this the floor of the attic. In fact, this construction proceeds floor by floor, and each floor is an independent platform. If the drawings are examined it will be noticed that the amount of cross-section of wood in any one bearing partition is identically the same as in any other. The dwelling built in this way, then, cannot settle unevenly, and the cracked plaster and twisted doors will be eliminated.
CLAPBOARDS OVER WOODEN STUDS.