186. That the architect may specify correctly the way in which he wishes the stone finished in his buildings, it is necessary that he be familiar with the tools used in cutting, and -the technical names applied to different kinds of finish.
Stonecutting Tools. - There are several kinds of hammers used by masons in dressing rubble, and also a variety of tools used in quarrying, but as they are not used in working the finished stone they will not be described.
The Axe or Pean Hammer, Fig. 71, has two cutting edges. It is used for making drafts or margin lines around the edge of the stones, and for reducing the faces to a level. It is used after the point on granite and other hard stones.
Fig. 71. - Axe or Pean Hammer.
The Tooth Axe, Fig. 72, has its cutting edges divided into teeth, the number of which varies with the kind of work required. It is used for reducing the face of sandstones to a level, ready for the crandall or tool. It is not used on granites and hard stones.
Fig. 72. - Tooth Axe.
The Bush Hammer, Fig. 73, is a square hammer, with its ends (from 2 to 4 inches square) cut into a number of pyramidal points. It is used for finishing the surface of sand and limestones, after the face of the stone has been brought nearly to its place.
The Crandall, Fig. 74, is a malleable iron bar about 2 feet long, slightly flattened at one end, through which is a slot | of an inch wide and 3 inches long. Through this slot are passed ten doubleheaded points of ¼-inch square steel, about 9 inches long, which are held in place by a key. Only one end of the crandall is used, and as the points become dull they can be taken out and sharpened or the ends reversed. The instrument is used for finishing sandstone after the surface has been prepared by the tooth axe or chisel.
Fig. 73, - Bush Hammer.
The Patent Hammer, Fig. 75, sometimes called bush hammer, is made of four, six, eight or ten thin blades of steel, ground to an edge and bolted together so as to form a single piece. It is used for finishing granite and hard limestones, the fineness of the finish being regulated by the number of blades used.
Fig. 74. - Crandall.
Fig. 75, - Patent Hammer.
The Point. - Fig. 76, No. 4, has a sharp point, and is used in breaking off the rough surface of the stone and reducing it to a plane, ready for the axe, hammer or tool. It is also used to give a rough finish to stone for broach work and also for picked work. No. 1, Fig. 76, represents the tooth chisel, used only on soft stones; No. 2 a drove, about 2 or 3 inches wide; Nos. 3, 7 and 8 different forms of chisels used on soft stone. No. 5 is a tool, usually from 3½ to 4½ inches wide, used for finishing sandstone, and No. 6 is a pitching chisel, used as in Fig. 77.