This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
As soon as the plasterers have removed their stagings from the house, the plumber can at once complete his piping work. In some cases it will have been necessary to run the main soil pipes concealed behind the plaster, but it is much better if they can be run in plain sight. Extra heavy pipe is called for, to be plain and painted on the outside with red lead. These pipes should have been tested for sand holes before delivery and being plain any imperfections in the casting may be readily seen, as would not be the case if they were asphalted as usually seen. The joints of the soil pipe will need especial watching to see that they are not slighted in any way. All the joints must be made of oakum, driven in tight, and finished with melted lead which will be poured around each joint and then caulked all around after the pipes are in position. (Fig. 43.) It is never well to complete the joints before securing the pipes in place as the jar of this handling may loosen the lead. The pouring in of melted lead will not secure a tight joint as the lead shrinks away upon cooling and it is necessary to force it again into contact with the pipe. This is the object of caulking, and if well done the lead in the joint will show marks of the iron all around.
Fig. 42. Section of Fireplace.